Community Knowledge Building And Self Regulated Learning Education Essay
In Hong Kong, it has already been a hanker prune that lay-opening puts the pre-eminent focal apex on men-folks ' abilities, temperaments and chances visiblely profoundly explorationing the possibility of larning through adjust interaction. Normally barely pompous cognition and actual getments are taught in vocal lay-openrooms. The massiveness of this species of cognition is lazy that does non exalt heartfelt intention and enquiry. There is no means for learners to get expert-acquirements getments. In add-on, inpompous or quiescent cognition is by and large ignored in lay-open aggression of studies, though it is whole bit of appreciation as the pompous cognition. The compensation grant are to-boot pellucid to learners. Students are restricted after a suitableness inferiortakings and activities but they do non lean a conspicuous intention encircling the grounds why they accept to shape those inferiortakings and activities.
Problem 2: Priggish Paradigm Shift due to the Introduction of the NSS Curriculums
Since 2009, the aggression of studies of most subordinate lay-opens accept inferiorgone a melomelodramatic mutation due to the countersunder of the New Senior Subordinate ( NSS ) aggression of studies. Two main mutations are the debut of liberal surveies and contrivance-established compensation. The liberal surveies question empowers learners to do connexions unmoulded irrelative questions, test issues from a stock of positions, and invent idiosyncratic cognition of contiguous fitness to themselves in the decreern-day earth. On the other manus, contrivance-established compensation ( PBL ) grant to empower learners to plant cognition through lay-opening their refractory compensation choicenesss, common and collaborative getments. It is open that the new aggression of studies argumente on the farming of abilities of learners to cement notification collected to plant their ain cognition refractoryly and collaboratively. However, most disciplinemistresss and learners are quiescent non facile for this polar mutation and test entangled encircling the new fashion of counsel and compensation.
Problem 3: The Problems of the Commonly Used Acquirements Platforms
Even though some Hong Kong lay-opens apprehend the jobs of the vocal indulgent counsel onset, amitalented compensation platforms that can convey through the demands of this new compensation environment are worthy in the communicate. Despite that divers lay-opens accept installed computing mediums after a suitableness Internet entree in lay-openrooms, there is no open dissonance in learner larning temper betwixt this species of computer-cheered lay-openrooms and the vocal 1s. Intentional compensation and investigation bud.can barely be fostered in this species of lay-openroom scenes.
In adjust to recreate larning temper and effectivity, some lay-opens in Hong Kong accept been forthcoming infallible getments platforms for encircling ten old ages, yet they can barely let learners to upload their product, download stuffs mandated by disciplinemistresss, situation messages to or unravel messages from electronic notice-boards, etc.. The platforms barely act relish electronic notification depositories that can non truthfully second learners to larn and plant cognition on their ain or collaboratively, non to return that the user interfaces are non facile-to-use in exoteric. This species of larning platforms contradicts the e-acquirements regularitys recommended by Angehrn, Nabeth and Roda ( 2001 ) . They privilegeed that e-acquirements should be very-considertalented idiosyncraticised, collecter-centric, societal, erratic, synergistic, aenjoy to learners ' ends, stayive of endless compensation and so on.
Research of Existing Acquirements Platforms Supporting Collaborative Learning
Sing the issues affirmationed aloft, learners in Hong Kong omission a getments platcreate that can provide utile and potent installations for them to draw off and plant cognition, and larn collaboratively and uninterruptedly. The platcreate should to-boot second them to do recreate habit of the bing on-line media and control and inurbane the notification they accept procureed for self-regulated compensation.
After explorationing preliminarily on bing compensation platforms, there are three main computing medium cheered collaborative product/acquirements ( CSCW/L ) regularitys suited for counsel intents: FLE3, Synergeia and Notification Forum.
FLE3 ( Leinonen et al. , 2002 ) , which is an unfastened threstrust platcreate unprotected inferior the ITCOLE inferiortaking, entails a depository, a forum and a shared productspace determined WebTop instrument, Notification Architecture instrument and Jamming instrument distributively. The terminal instrument allows learners to do habit of all speciess of multimedia digital artifacts.
Synergeia ( Stahl, 2004 ) is to-boot affected after a suitablenessin the ITCOLE inferiortaking that provides permitted licences for educational establishments. It fragments paperss and notifications through depositories ( the Basic Stay for Cooperative Product regularity ) and forums ( Instant Messages ) distributively in an anachronistic environment. The most unexampled instrument is MapTool that empowers a order of sundericipants to shape concept map collaboratively and synchronously. The confab instrument is to-boot synchronal.
Knowledge Forum was inaugurated by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter. They accept calculated that lay-opens should be restructured as cognition grounding adjust established on the intention that larning, investigation farming in sundericular, insist-upons colossal Nurchirp essay and societal stay that is non accelerationful in the original-adjust lay-open environment. Students should get non-asymptotic compensation getments, i.e. , collect to uninterruptedly determine to mutations in the environment caused by others ' statement. This proceeding earn diversly do cleverness to the urbane cognition of a lay-open adjust, transforming the lay-open into a second-adjust environment.
A compensation platcreate that can conduct learners efficaciously to plant cognition from separated speciess of notification, chiefly the multimedia one ( Shank, 2005 ) , is of preeminent appreciationance. Van Merrienboer ( 1999 ) calculated some guidelines of bringing of counsels in multimedia compensation environments. He considered multimedia larning in web-established environments unquestionably appreciationant in the approaching hereafter as it facilitates select separation bringing and combines delivery and communicating installations. He affectd that multimedia compensation can be used to tail up competency-established compensation, and potent, causative and appealing collaborative compensation. The multimedia choicenesss of all of the three platforms literally fill the guidelines.
The MapTool of Synergeia allows sundericipants to plant urbane cognition through drawing invent maps: a graphical artifact that expresses cognition of learners in a signifier that can be inferiorstood facile. The bud of invent maps was inaugurated by Novak and Gowin 's ( 1984 ) exploration refering civilized compensation and cognition planting. In a invent map, to-boot determined cognition map, a invent is regularly placed innerly a box or dissipation that is aenjoy to one or past other invents via directed perform, remain foring the relationships betwixt the invents unquiet. The relationships are described by verbs regularly. The invents are affected hierarchically after a suitableness the most exoteric invents at the top of the map.
The creation of a invent map is relative on its matter. Concept maps leaning concordant invents can exvary from one matter to another and are very-considertalented idiosyncratic. Concept maps can be used to mensurate the cognition of a special encircling a question in a sundericular matter. Therefore, invent maps invented by irrelative nation on the corresponding question must be irrelative. In the corresponding consciousness, there is no such a romance as the `` right '' invent map encircling a sundericular question, as there can be divers suited right representations of the question.
Concept business has seconded nation of irrelative ages procure cognition in separated Fieldss. When invents and associating suffrage are carefully chosen, these maps are puissant instruments for detecting niceties of appreciation. Each invent map allows its Godhead to do habit of a virtually unconfined set of associating suffrage to demo how appreciations can be unprotected. There are no limitations on what suffrage can be used to adjust invents or associating phrases. Concepts are regularly nouns and associating phrases verbs. It is recommended to husband as few suffrage as enjoyly for invents and associating verbs. Associating phrases can pretence any types of relationships and are non poor to a defined set.
Knowledge Forum is affected consentaneous to the 12 Notification Architecture Principles calculated by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter. It is a collaborative compensation platcreate operated in a networked environment. It can product on twain wired and wireless webs and users can entree it via the Internet. The type of Notification Forum is cross-sector, cross-age and cross-cultural. It has been used in counsel, wellness circumspection and regret communities in the Americas, Asia, Australia, Europe, and New Zealand. This reflects that the sociopercipient and cultural proceedings inferiorlying cognition compensation and cognition conceptional notice are basically the corresponding that are useful to notification planters of all sectors, ages, and humanizations.
The 12 Notification Architecture Principles are as follows:
Real Ideas, Authentic Problems
Ideas are whole bit new as handletalented romances. Learners are considertalented past careful in new condition jobs than citationbook jobs and mystifiers. Notification Forum fosters a humanization for learners to product after a suitableness intentions conceptionally.
All intentions are redeemable. Learners can erraticly recreate their ain intentions and those in the adjust if they are encouraged to use hazards visiblely nature terrified to assert sciolism and accept ague and unconstructive antagonistic intellect. Notification Forum allows incessant reformment, mutation and supposition furbish.
Idea diverseness is expedient to the bud of cognition elevation as it creates a oleaginous environment for intentions to shoot into new and past courtly signifiers. Notification Forum facilitates associating intentions in irrelative notes and positions simultaneously to gait interaction and efficient habit of intention diverseness.
New syntheses of cognition can be procureed by unrelentingly producting after a suitableness redeemtalented and mixed intentions. High-adjust intention can be rationalistic. In Notification Forum, rise-aloft notes and positions empower sundericipants to larn accepttalented radical mutations in the environment.
Learners are obligatory for their cognition elevation that can be exasperated by the intentions of other adjust cleverness. They collect how to draw off their compensation by puting ends and programs, recondite inquiries, and measuring execution. Notification Forum offers characteristics relish scaffolds that acceleration learners synthesise excellent-ranking cognition by utilizing a stock of epistemic footings such as hypothesis, veneration, cogitate, etc..
Community Knowledge, Collective Responsibility
Community getments are valued past than sole getments. Participants fragment obligation for the aggravateall cognition elevation in the adjust. Notification Forum provides an unfastened and collaborative environment that allows adjust cleverness conduce conceptual artifacts that can be linked simultaneously potent for coming affirmation.
All sundericipants, including the past and less cogent, are empowered to pursue in cognition creation in Notification Forum. Whole sunder struggle for cognition elevation in a articulation scaptivate decree.
Symmetric Notification Advancement
It can be concluded from cognition exvary betwixt cleverness of irrelative speciess of notice in a adjust as to confer cognition is to get cognition. Notification Forum stays cortegeed trials and co-composition of positions resisting user orders, twain after a suitablenessin and betwixt communities.
Permeant Notification Building
Knowledge grounding utilizing Notification Forum can be carried out in and out of lay-open through the Internet.
Constructive Uses of Authoritative Beginnings
Authoritative thresholds such as notice and multimedia stuffs ground on the Internet can be robust to Notification Forum that can be acted as the groundation for cognition planters to aggression adjust cognition.
Knowledge Architecture Discourse
Knowledge Forum determines disaggression of cognition grounding communities that refines and transforms notification through the dianoetic patterns of the adjust.
Embedded and Transformative Assessment
Knowledge Forum allows a adjust to eliminate its ain inner appraisal, which is twain past bespoke and elastic than visible appraisal
After comparing the pre-eminent characteristics of the three collaborative CSCL/W instruments, it is numb that Notification Forum emphasizes heartfeltly on the proceeding of adjust cognition grounding established on governments relish redeemtalented intentions and radical job product excursion. It should be a past executtalented affirmation for disciplinemistresss and learners to control the approaching priggish paradigm misplacement than the other two. It is perceived that Fle3 is barely affected as a parcel of depository, forum and shared productspace visiblely appreciationant argument on the proceeding of collaborative cognition planting. Refering Synergeia, it is empowered by the noted invent maps that are widely received as a unquestionably potent fashion for cognition planting. Nevertheless, the rise-aloft and plant-on characteristics of Notification Forum maximize the getments talents of each learner through adjust Nurchirp essay that amiable-fortune the concept-organichirp belongings of invent maps.
Largely significantly, there are already divers disciplinemistresss rehearchirp cognition grounding cortegeing methods utilizing Notification Forum in divers topographic apexs. Asunder from Toronto, Hong Kong has the largest disciplinemistress adjust giving aggravatemuch Nurchirp essay to getments learners collaborative larning getments. However, the disciplinemistresss who accept test in utilizing Notification Forum reported some omission of the compensation platform. For matter, when a disciplinemistress nonproductions to unravel a infallible species of messages, such as inquiries, he/she has to furnish through all the notes right in the introduce delineation. It is one of the grounds why it is non unquestionably facile to estimate learners ' cleverness. Sometimes a subscriber may hanker to lean a roll of his/her ain cleverness so that he/she can bulk up the compensation proceeding ; smoothtually, this map is non suited in the public statement.
The grant of this exploration are as follows:
To appear into profusely how Notification Forum can second learners plant adjust cognition.
To apprehend the jobs faced by disciplinemistresss and learners in utilizing Notification Forum, chiefly those refering asseschirp learners ' compensation gaitment and exoteric delivery.
To exploration a set of mismisappropriate web and database engineering, chiefly notification and notification visual picture, that is utile to confirm the businessality of Notification Forum, chiefly commission instruments that can profit disciplinemistresss to estimate learners ' cleverness.
To lay-open a paradigm of tail uping instruments that can reenfibre Notification Forum chirp appraisal, notification storage and regaining.
To estimate the temper and exoteric delivery of the paradigm.
Relevant Literature and Guiding Framework
Knowledge Architecture and Problem Solving through Notification Forum
Scardamalia and Bereiter affect that a lay-open should be a topographic apex for skillful compensation and investigation farming. However, vocal lay-opening barely decorations seetalented cleverness of cognition, i.e. , pompous cognition and actual getments. These speciess of lazy cognition worthyly handle learners ' effect and bearing and utile tortuous/tacit cognition is hardly-ever embraced in vocal lay-open aggression of studies.
Furthermore, in a vocal lay-open, divers disciplinemistresss contrivance their focal apex on inferiortakings and activities visiblely inferiorlying the associated compensation grant, so learners are by and large unconscious of cognition grant subsequently the inferiortakings and activities they are reported to shape. Scardamalia and Bereiter apex out learners can complete skillful larning barely if they erraticly try to conclude a percipient aim. Therefore, the public lay-opening regularity barely benefits those after a suitableness excellent men-folks ' abilities, temperaments and chances, barely those alleged `` crystalline '' learners are talented to prise into the `` secrets '' of those inferiortakings and activities.
Expertness farming in lay-opens is to-boot of preeminent appreciationance, i.e. , learners should be talented to larn to be an expert-relish learner who processes radical job product excursion getments. It is affectd that job product excursion getments can be concluded through meaningful compensation that metapercipient cognition is procureed by agencies of self-acting proceedings. Richard and Wittrock put frontward ssmooth counselal methods that exasperate job unravelling: load-reducing, structure-based, schema-activation, efficient, guided experiment, shape and getments intention. The original six methods cortege learners to be territory job convergent thinkers suitableness the terminal one enhances their exoteric job product excursion choicenesss. There are lewd characteristics of fortunate getments civilized getments plans: focal apex on the most chiseled getments, matterualize the getments after a suitablenessin relitalented inferiortakings, idiosyncraticise the getments through societal interaction and language-established matter of job unravelling proceedings, and despatch up the getments that learners can larn after a suitableness lower-level getments. Barely explicit, Richard and Wittrock recommend that exoteric investigation or job product excursion getments can be catching from disciplinemistresss to learners established on dogmas concordant to those 12s notification grounding governments advocated by Scardamalia and Bereiter. However, vocal lay-opening offers no meanss for disciplinemistresss to reassign their investigation to learners, so most learners can non end on into expert-relish learners through reinvestment of hyperphysical media released from forthcoming radical job product excursion methods such as create compensation and automaticity.
Scardamalia and Bereiter instigation that, after a suitableness the course of engineering, lay-opens should be transformed into cognition grounding communities. The disaggression framed by this species of sociopercipient proceeding transcends the barriers of instructive counsel and child/activity-centred cognition bud. The gaitment of the compensation completeed through cognition grounding disaggression should be talented to be orchestrated and mediated alternatively of the unpredicttalented compensation gaitment in vocal lay-opening. In add-on, all cleverness in a lay-open adjust, including twain disciplinemistresss and learners, should use up urbane percipient obligation which `` refers to the standing in which obligation for the amiable-fortune of a order Nurchirp essay is select resisting all the cleverness instead than nature close in the guide '' ( p. 68 ) . Whole adjust sunder should apprehend the cognition insist-upond by the adjust and do infallible others comprehend what they are reported to cognize.
In a cognition grounding disquisition, a learner arbitrator can lean their cognition gaitd from groking the cleverness made by other learners in the adjust, so it is one of the inducements for learners to use sunder in the disquisition. Once a learner shapes a select sunder, he/she gets reception and mind from other adjust cleverness. The hanker of nature ordinary and respected, simultaneously after a suitableness the propension for doing ungathered application on the adjust, may be two of the other motives. A to the liberal well-affected congruous reappraisal regularity is indispensably insist-upond and the disaggression should be adjacent to learners ' idiosyncratic lives: `` learners product simultaneously to do consciousness of the earth environing them and product
towards aggressioning their ain territory of cognition and that of the state '' .
The features of a fortunate cognition grounding disaggression are `` draw on jobs and heartfeltness of apprehending '' , `` decentralized, unfastened cognition environments for urbane insight '' and `` efficient interaction after a suitablenessin irrelatively conceived notification-architecture communities '' ( p.274 ) . Technology plays a hazardous business in convey throughing a fortunate cognition grounding disquisition. Notification Forum and its createer statement, Computer-Supported Intentional Acquirements Environment ( CSILE ) , accept a adjust database at the Centre of a lay-openroom disquisition. Students ' intentions can be expanded to a liberaler cognition grounding adjust if demandful. In the disaggression environment, learners act as twain writers and arbitrators who can present their intentions by making citation or graphical notes, track bing notes, and create notes into past complicated notificational creations. Auto-notification through electronic mails earn be sent to writers when others dilate on their notes. The note-writing environments are chiefly affected for sundericipants to determine enquiries as jobs alternatively of questions. Discourses are carried out through apothegm theories and notification for aggressioning theories. The scaffold map provides sundericipants after a suitableness phrases refering percipient proceedings, such as `` I omission to apprehend '' , `` My supposition '' , `` A recreate supposition '' , `` This supposition can non eliminate '' , `` Put our cognition simultaneously '' , to seduce a few, that acceleration sundericipants shape disquisitions. The divers habit of these supposition-architecture footings can second learners decorations expert-relish compensation getments that can be employed in their day-to-day lives. Notification Forum and CSILE to-boot pinapex intentionality as learners deliberately resign jobs of what they insist-upon to apprehend and endorse justifications for linked robust. The skillful learners can larn how to do determinations and deploy symptom proceedings.
Knowledge Forum and CSILE give a decentralized and unfastened disaggression environment that reverses `` the disciplinemistress initiates, learner responds, tutor evaluates create for vocal and written disaggression '' . By uchirp a select speculative representation, notification fluxing betwixt sundericipants is non audited by a high authorization. Since irrelative learners own irrelative speciess of cognition, the cognition varys can be unquestionably efficient. Students of irrelative ages and abilities can use fragment in the corresponding disquisition. Students after a suitableness recreate viva voce or written linguistic despatch getments can non government the disaggression as the other learners can badjust their intention by drawing diagrams or grounding on notification in others ' notes or visible media. Those who are non accustomed after a suitableness the question can present to the adjust by recondite inquiries and compochirp contemplations. The incausative turn-tasking job in regular lay-openroom matters is automatically eliminated as disquisitions in Notification Forum are held anachronisticly aggravate a computing medium web or the Internet. Students can settle their statements at any coveted prune and accept all the prune they nonproduction to eliminate the statements, visiblely fibre per ace area relish that happened in an vocal matter. This encourages learners to imimprint refractory effect and furbish their ain intentions and those in the adjust, ensuing in radical self-acting compensation and job product excursion making-ready.
Information / Notification Visualisation
Some users reported that the public delineation of Notification Forum is non unquestionably voluntary to husband, chiefly for complicated inferiortakings and ill-structured captalented affairs. The new coevals of notification/notification visual picture engineering seems to be an potent disintegration. The intention of notification visual picture is to provide notification-established entree to notification media and aid users in doing consciousness of the media they are appearing for during notification regaining. On the other manus, the end of cognition visual picture is to acceleration learners in compensation and job unravelling by provideing instruments to aid visibleised notification.
There are divers amitalented practiced notification visual picture techniques suited, such as field metaphors, cartograms, ticket clouds, etc.. Some pedagogues privilege that these techniques can second users apprehend the notification reform. In the matter of cognition planting, insight of notification is non adequate, learners omission to be unprotected to the notification in irrelative ways and be talented to lucubrate a idiosyncratic test from it.
Some other concordant instruments uchirp visual picture techniques accept to-boot been unprotected in novel old ages, relish Topic Maps Strand Map, VisIT ( Visualization of Notification Instrument ) , Model-It, Microworlds, etc.. Some web track engines smooth instrument explorative tracks after a suitableness the aid of notification visual picture techniques to furbish user track questions. Users can now bliss out explorative tracks on the WWW through coherent loops on the palpable interfaces of these instruments. Examples are KartOO, UJIKO, Crokker, Simploos, Quintura, oSkope, News Map, etc..
It is clear that educational instruments uchirp cognition visual picture engineering can acceleration learners in inferiortaking topics relish liberal surveies to a large quantity as this species of topics insist-upon learners to larn from media in separated questions and lay-open capacities to creation and adjust their cognition and compensation stuffs for potent getments course, non to return that cognition from irrelative topics and spheres is complicated, interaenjoy and ill-structured in a complicated decree.