Does 20th century literature draws upon or departs from tradition to understand the present?
‘The best disclosed English strain advanced the Rubaiyat’. Fissure delay this proposition, Stanley Sultan selects Hugh Kenner’s signification from The Invisible Singer (1959) and discusses them delay particular intimation to ‘The Benevolence Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ and explores studious veracity to unearth Eliot’s crop of romance.
Sultan’s polemic hints that ‘Prufrock’ was an act by Eliot and performed in the heading of a chronicled pioneer to individualize that the consequence of proclamation was at a season when English rejoiceerry was minute for a new command. He inhales care to Eliot’s prelude to Pound’s Selected Poems, to prove the chronicledal matter of ‘Prufrock’ in which Elliot retrospectively separates out rejoiceers who guard open, imitated or pretended technique. Eliot avowed that gentleman originality is cropal and bad rejoiceerry ‘bears no relative to the globe to which it appeals’ (Sultan, 1985, p.78). Sultan supports Eliot as a pioneer who orthodox a new origination of rejoiceers by observing that he wrote ‘Prufrock’ three years foregoing to contravention Pound, providing deposition (Prufrock and Raskolnikov Again: A Communication from Eliot, quoted in Sultan, p.78) that the rejoiceer was embodied delayin the occasion of sensation and relation. In placing the strain primitive in each magnitude, Eliot had abandoned it arrogance of locate but this chronicled mode was not recognised until an considerefficient Pound persuaded Harriet Monroe to circuadvanced the labor. Sultan claims this prodding signified a veer in received inculcateion confirming the extreme remove in heading that contrarietys to Aiken’s precedent exclusion delay the heed that the strain was ‘bordering on insanity’. Sultan transcribes that ‘Eliot made the ‘modern’ artefact which Pound following unearthed and wisely championed perfectly on his own’ (Sultan, 1985, p.79) crediting Pound delay conviction and wave, indisputefficient in Pound’s communication to Monroe in which he heeds that Eliot had ‘modernised himwilful on his own’.
In classify for the strain to twain abandon and inhale from romance, Eliot illustrates the relativeship delay Romanticism through the documentation of shadowry in ‘Prufrock’ which Sultan perceive-keeps is typically ironic, noting that ‘it exemplifies the Modernists institutement of the convenient fictitious commitment from the season of Novalis’ (Sultan, 1985, p.80). Dante and the interdependence that Modernists felt towards Renaissance erudition and lyrical rejoiceerry is indisputable, but Sultan hints that these founts did not carve Eliot alone. Indicative appraise is located on Conrad’s Courage of Darkness and ‘The Return’ and Baudelaire’s Les fleurs du mal, inhaleing on Eliot’s comments in posterior vivacity that he recognised the possibilities of developing an oppidan rejoiceerry following balbutiation these quotations. Sultan credits these two transcribers which deportmenting Eliot the inculcate of oppidan industrial civilisation on the civilized activity. Referencing Kenner intermittently, Sultan inhales on The Pound Era to deportment the compendious wave of Henry James. Sultan concludes that whilst James portrayed sensation through topic trial, Eliot bestowed sensation by environing the topic’s apprisedness of her or his trial twain embodying the haul of the advanced on Eliot’s bestow labor but too the allurement of abandoning from it to bestow bigwig new.
Sultan bears his ingredient generous dispersion by recognirejoice that Eliot’s filching from the advanced resembling waved his successors. Molly Bloom’s apostrophe in Joyce’s Ulysses is an illustration of Eliot’s wave as the quotation is bestowed as a sensation trial of the topic. Sultan bestows a brawny reasoning for the chronicledal locatement of this gathering of strains but whilst his reasoning steers suppress to relegating Pound to an principal for Eliot, it is refreshing to inccontinuity such a brawny polite-mannered-balancedt for Eliot’s special ability delay conspicuous deposition.
Rabate, Jean-Michel. (1984) Romance and T. S Eliot. The Cambridge Guide to T.S. Eliot ed. A. David Moody, London: Cambridge University Press. Printed bulk bought from www.abebooks.co.uk, 4th January 2011.
Jean Michel-Rabate bestows Eliot as man haunted by the advanced in his nice ingredient Romance and T. S Eliot, circulateed in the Cambridge Companion to T. S. Eliot (1984, p210-222). In the matter of the duration of cogitation following Romanticism, Rabate’s polemic is how fur restrain Eliot had in the advanced influencing his bestow labor, bestowing three illustrations to dare Eliot’s posterior halture on his own labor and asks if we guard to recognize his inculcateion. Should we ‘critize the arbiter?’
Rabate primitive inhales deposition from future despatches betwixt Eliot and Mary Hutchinson as deposition for distrusting Eliot’s retrospective determinations of romance. As a aged rejoiceer, Eliot alluded to romance requiring the special’s chronicled reason ‘to bypass too cmiss an multitudeility betwixt the outer and the topicive components in amelioration’ (Rabate, 1984 p.212). This is returned in the habitisms of his topics as Eliot blends pious speech delay aesthetic revere anteriorly marrying the logician’s rattled sereneness in ‘Portrait of a Lady’. However the communication to Hutchinson the rejoiceer reminds his resembling that he is ‘metic’ and dismays that he capability be seen as a ‘savage’ for his crop of English erudition. Rabate persuades that this catechism is one of dismay as returned in ‘Prufrock’ contradicting Eliot’s posterior partition and the reliance that Sultan’s nice ingredient alludes to. The doctrine that Eliot saw himwilful as a outlandish proprietor is one laboured by divers arbiters and Rabate concludes that Eliot’s disorientation and relation to metic is institute in the fragmentation of his rejoiceerry and rendered by a Bergsonian course of sensation.
Rabate tackles ‘High Modernism and the Bifurcation of Tradition’ by contrarietying Pound’s theories intermittentlyst that of Eliot’s. Whilst Sultan uses wave to advance his polemic, Rabate persuades that a tail to basics and homely admission that rejuvenated romance, as advocated by Pound, caused tightness in eminent exhibitism when located intermittentlyst Eliot’s aggravateperplexed admission. Rabate uses an compendious illustration of this in a co-ordination of polis in the labor of the two men. Whilst Pound was contenteded to select the depend in it’s Greek matter, Eliot chose to penetrate into hidden imports that incorporated waves from Virgil, Augustine and Dante. The blank is that Eliot felt he had to furnish romance not environing him but innerly his inspirer and this respectful admission divided him from Pound’s simplistic admission.
Eliot transcribes In Scared Wood that ‘The barely refund for Romanticism is to analyse (quoted in Rabate, 1984 p. 217) and Rabate comments that Eliot is graceful frustrated delay nice reason and depending to construction, employing co-ordination and partition to inhale on Laforgue’s wave, arguably a fount of impulse to the rejoiceer in reinventing the advanced and redefining romance. Rabate uses Eliot’s essay on ‘Hamlet and His Problems’ to perceive-guard that Eliot inspectioned veracity as a ‘fickle delicate performance that has to be passed on by a aggravate compendious romance instituteed on the symbolic kingdom of paternity and speech’ a blank strained by Eliot’s informership at the fear of the Queen’s sexual long-for. Rabate compares this to Freud and recognises that the rejoiceer saw a fatal apprisedness of vivacity domiciled on romance laboring through release to originate a symbolic vivacity.
Rabate concludes that Eliot inhales from romance to conceive the advanced, but his separation as rejoiceer, essayist and studious arbiter serves to reachieve us that Eliot had a broader and increasingly open inculcateion of romance that adequate further his contemporaries.Eliot urges us to realise that exhibitism is haunted by says from the advanced and in making it new, exhibitists were too efficient to permission a chronicledal investigate in their labor.
Part 2: Essay
Tradition in the matter of T. S. Eliot is cognate to his doctrine on amelioration. In classify to conceive how the strains ‘The Benevolence Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ and ‘Portrait of a Lady’ inhale upon and abandon from romance to conceive the bestow, in the matter of the year of proclamation, it is expedient to conceive Eliot’s doctrine on romance.
Whilst Eliot’s inculcateions are exemptly unsparingly through his nice labors it is Notes towards the Determination of Amelioration (1948) that he attempts to crystallise his determination in a full proposition. In abstract, Eliot reminds the discoverer that amelioration can be moderate of good-temperedness (by which he encompasses demeanor); counsel through attainments and crafts; philosophy and, lastly, the arts. If the engagement ‘culture’ had beseem lost and misused in the advanced, then Eliot was advocating a new import exclusive concepts that were living and solid irreconcilable participation. Unformed this concept Eliot intervening sanctity, gregarious quotationure and the skill of government (epigrammatic into politics) and what beseems conspicuous from his quotation is the consequence of uniformity and variation delayin gregarious groups whether that be classes or countries. To strain the fundamentals on Eliot’s doctrine of romance it is expedient to rendezvous on his fancys of European and English studious romance. Eliot’s inspection on the main component is that ameliorationd Europe is a ‘shared romance’. Writing in Following Stramble Gods (1934) the rejoiceer concluded that romance was largely uninformed as we may admit that so is the amelioration from which it is born, but Eliot stressed that a ‘reason of the advanced’ or a ‘reason of veracity’ was induced and commented that ‘By lorejoice romance we miss our rest on the bestow’ (quoted in Lucy, 1960, p.6). In reinvigorating erudition, as Stanley Sultan recognized ‘at a consequence when, on succeeding deposition, English rejoiceerry was responsive for bigwig new’ (Sultan, 1985, p.77),Eliot originated a new era in studious veracity which embraces the advanced and components of amelioration.
The advanced is indisputefficient in ‘The Benevolence Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’ delay a heading that denotes we are going to discaggravate a benevolence strain, yet the quotation is respectfully the irreconcilable of benevolence. Distinctively the strain is not embellished delay gregarious or gregariousist agendas heterogeneous the Romantics or in-veracity the notice institute in Auden and his contemporaries some twenty years posterior. Eliot omits these disquisitions purposefully so that the most noticeefficient is the profundity of amelioration and reasonual preciseness assiduous in the labor and the tedious inspiration of waves that he uses to frame the labor that ramble from the Bible to Homer’s Odyssey in the use of the adequate shadow. Eliot employs romance from the begin in crafting the Epigraph and the fissure continuitys which institute the consequence of Dante and lay down the quotationure of the strain. In The Metaphysical Poets (1973) Eliot’s sinlessness on the accusation that his labor was perplexed was to illustrate that the exhibit rejoiceer had to beseem ‘aggravate compendious, aggravate subauditive, aggravate heterogeneous, in classify to validity, to disturb if expedient, speech into his import’. The epigram is perchance good-tempered-tempered deposition for Eliot advanced whilst the strain gives the inculcateion of confurejoice it beseems conspicuous that the strain can be esteemd delayout an conceiveing of the heteroglossic says as Eliot institutees a conspicuously delineated rejoiceer persona who is disconnected, imperfect and oppidane. The use of lexicon is epigrammatic, fine and biting. He inhales on Shakespearian and other studious archetypes in classify either to elucidate who the persona is, or who he is most surely not:
‘No! I am not Prince Hamlet, nor was meant to be;/Am an partisan lord……(Ll.117-118)
Almost at seasons, the Fool’ (L. 225)
Thus the topic is compared to a worn-out perceive-keepr, an archetypal Shakespearian kind. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is indicative to the disquisition of romance for Eliot is evoking Laforgue’s intimation to the spectacle which is a recurring disquisition in the labor of the French Symbolist rejoiceer. Unformed these continuitys is a disagreeefficient contrariety to the fictitious yearnings of the Victorian continuitys ‘oh for the wings of a dove!’ The persona is surely wilful-absorbed, polite-mannered-balanced wilful-obsessed. Eliot bestows the man as full delay all civilized vanities and foibles in locate, and as such tshort is unswerving realism in the ingredient as polite-mannered-mannered as a purely aesthetic margin. He is not a Fictitious philanthropist. Tshort are intermittent diversions which deportment his unexistence and the wilful-doubt environing the deportment he bestows to those environing him:
‘Time to depend tail and vanish the stair,
With a deficient flaw in the average of my hair –
(They earn say: ‘How his hair is growing thin!’)’ (Ll.45-47)
Eliot selects the persona through the mocking trepidations of release. The fancy that we all guard a season to be born and die is visible in the persona’s obsession delay season. Eliot’s strains ebb and course delay the transitory, insubstantial debris of season and reassembly arguably a Bergsonian wave of the concept of ‘le temps’ as the persona furnishs it unusable to obliviate a one consequence delay echoes of Laforgue in the colloquial temper. Thus the discoverer is made apprised of the fleeting kind of season by a disorientating predisposition of Eliot to jumble colony and unity delay seemingly irrelevant shadows arirejoice from recollection.
‘I guard seen the consequence of my greatness flutter,
And I guard seen the deceaseless footman rest my wheedle,
And in deficient, I was afraid’ (Ll. -92
Eliot’s technique is to mix respectful reasoning delay the temporal is an wave of Bergson’s deportment of reassembly and it’s practicality. Eliot selects raging romances from the Fictitious duration and strips them to a vivacity that is everyday for the civilized achieve is daily scared by outer polite-mannered-balancedts. Resembling advancedoral meadows and heavenly endliness are dared:
‘The yellow fog that rubs its tail parallel the window- panes,
The yellow steam that rubs its gag on the window-panes…’ (Ll.21-22)
Rabate hushs that the advanced haunts the bestow and short is the reversal of Eliot. Oppidan blandness was not considered to be appealing and yet short is bestowed as a rejoiceeric spectacle.
Herbert Howarth comments in Notes on Some Figures Behind T. S. Eliot (Southam, 1968, p.51) that the rejoiceer was alresponsive an oppidan prig and this ‘primness of habit and speech’ (as renamed by Clive Bell, Southam, 1968, p.51) is returned in the persona of the kind and his insecurities of ageing. Such continuitys guard conspicuously invoked hypothesis aggravate the years on Eliot’s conspicuous misogyny in this and other labors. It is thrilling to hush that rejoiceer persona was repeatedly jumbled delay Eliot in this particular ingredient. Fictitious romance capability guard it that benevolence strains are from the inclinet but tshort is no conspicuous evidence in the strain that the topic is named J. Alfred Prufrock or in-veracity is Eliot. Tshort is no course of wilful-conscious; or rather cognizant of the wilful – this promise, enjoy amelioration, has beseem deceptive delay other determinations. Eliot’s doubters may be confurejoice the rejoiceer persona delay the agent, whose aim seems to be to rebestow the civilized mode as it really exists, stripped of romanceal rejoiceeric niceties destitute of the wilful impetuous pleas of the Fictitious era.
‘In the capability the women end and go
Talking of Michelangelo’ (Ll.41-42)
The couplet seems to advert the inner rattle delayin the achieve of the rejoiceer persona, a fortuitous put-down of women. Virginia Woolf and Conrad Aitken twain hushd Eliot’s taciturnity that lent him a drilling and his topic in ‘Love Song’ seems similarly dismal by congregation as women are blamed for distracting him from straining a logical blank. When the topic ends suppress to an acceptance he is scared:
‘Is it fragrance from a dress
That constructs me so err?’ (Ll.71-72)
These delicate observations bear confident the most affected kindistics of the strain which is the use of the refrains as the persona produce to the women, worries aggravate questions and has repeated observations on his fix. This intimations precedent rejoiceeric techniques that are too institute in the tinkle plot. Whilst it may not semblance a formal precedent and some compressiveness portray exempt direction, this strain is concerned divers rejoiceeric forms which when fully delay the versified quotationure enefficient Eliot to define the achieve of the persona and his neurosis. The strain too contains debris of sonnets delay the stanzas that tinkle as institute in a Petrarchan sonnet but the globe-weary speech used constructs them approximately unrecognisefficient from the Fictitious form; ‘I do not fancy they (the mermaids) would rejoice to me,’ (l.231) originates an anti-Romantic dose of realism in a open exhibitist participation.
The avoid strain in the gathering, ‘Portrait of a Lady’ offers a complementation to ‘Love Song’. J.C.C. Mays hushd that it is ‘the corresponding recital told by two says combine, allowing a aggravate incongruous but commendatory sharp-end of inspection’ (Moody, 1994 p.112). This denotes the thematic similarities of temperature, shadowry and oppidan surroundings to inhale out the inertia and insanity betwixt the two topics. The ingredient may guard been domiciled on Eliot’s contraventions delay an elderly studious lady whilst at university in America and the strain is heedably Jameison delay a co-ordination betwixt tempers, use of quiz, confabulation and astute observations. Whilst Eliot was a conquer of relations tshort seems to be a conspicuous inhale from the advanced through James and delay copious use of shadowry and simile to transfer the Lady’s rusty lit chamber, a technique heavily assiduous by advanced rejoiceers:
‘And indelicate waxed candles in the darkened capability,
Four rings of inadequate upon the ceiling aggravatehead,
An atmospshort of Juliet’s tomb’ (lll.8-10)
Throughout, the persona is disconnected, disdainful and rather affable towards his multitude. The open use of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is referencing the Bergsonian orthodox disquisition of vivacity in release and release in vivacity as Juliet was antecedent gone but really in a coma, a truculent but respectful jeer by the persona in ‘Portrait’ on the seasonless kind of his visits. Unintermittently intermittently, as in ‘Love Story’, the conversations are disrupted by intimations to temporal existence – ‘I encourage of course/And go on drinking tea’ (Ll.53-54).
The intimation to kind is evoking the kind symbolism of the Romantics as Eliot uses lilac as a similitude for benevolence and friendships in the fissure continuitys of the avoid stanza as the Lady admonishes the persona for letting vivacity lubricate separate. The lilac too tells the discoverer that season has moved to hop. Yet in a exhibitist contort, quiz causes neurosis to opposed the inapprehensive consequence. Just as the persona in ‘Love Song’ was invaded by inner respectful moot so we furnish it solemn the persona in ‘Portrait of a Lady’ as his cares forsake to regarding vivacity after a whileout the chamber:
‘I guard my help.
I halt wilful consoled.
Except when a street piano, automatic and jaded,
Reiterates some worn out despicable songs.
With the nidor of hyacinth irreconcilable the garden.
Recalling things that other persons guard long-ford.
Are these fancys correct or wickedness?’ (Ll. 77–83)
Melancholy and inertia intermittently manage the October spectacle as season creeps confident and the lady has no aggravate than unpenny confidence to self-satisfaction her:
‘You narrowly perceive when you are shortafter tail.
You earn furnish so fur to glean.
My encourage fells heavily unformed the bric a brac.’ (Ll. 90–92)
These continuitys inhale a contrariety delay James’s Isabel Archer and the Lady in ‘Portrait’ as Eliot selects Archer’s brawnyest continuityament of anarchy and originates a new similitude through the fake optimism:
We must permission it now to fate
You earn transcribe at any rate
Perhaps, it is not too advanced.
I shall sit short serving tea to friends. (Ll101–104)
Graggravate Smith’s inspections on the persona in ‘Portrait’ are polite-behaved of care:
‘By discriminating to the profundity of the lady’s lone and emptiness vivacity, the early man has committed a psychological rape: this is for worse than fornication, for he has not respected her civilized mode. (Moody, 1994, p.14). Yet the follower is made apprised that the Lady was frequently knew that they had never been friends and his ego is deflated. Confronted by the veracity the anti-philanthropist struggles to guard the mockery of restrain than visage the desuetude of his wilful-possession. In a contort to James’s Lady, Eliot’s follower realises that he is all the traits that he mocked in the Lady and he has no correct to locate himwilful over her. This too eminentlights the confabulation from The Jew of Malta in the Epigram which embodys enfold fault played out by Barabas and a Friar. Thus twain the Lady and the topic betray each other as the feminine beseems a similitude for mislaying of purity and closing of action making her the substitute of Juliet in a coma. The temper of the epigraph contrarietys unswervingly delay the strain wshort tshort is no prompting of fornication and no tender contiguity betwixt the follower and the lady yet release and sin of a misdemeanor committed overcome.
Structurally the strain juxtaposes says to individualize who should guard the loudest say. The strain opens delay the Lady as the logician defines her capability, her tongue and then bestows his own temper to construct his say separate from hers. The disquisition is calm?} n ess as the Lady speaks as a violin and the logician reminds us that it’s dull and out of temper compared to his ‘capricious monotone’. He uses reason to document the quiz and proximity that constructs him exhibit, referring to politics and vulgar subjects. As delay ‘Love Song’, tshort are components of exempt direction and irformal precedent that deportment exhibit techniques but the use of Petarchan sonnets conspicuously denote the wave of romance in Eliot’s labor. Unintermittently intermittently fragmentation portrays the capricious achieve of the topic as he fails to assemble on the Lady:
‘With the nidor of hyacinths irreconcilable the garden
Recalling things that other persons guard long-ford’ (Ll. 81-82)
In blank I persuade that Eliot cannot evade the romance and by analyrejoice tow strains in the ‘Prufrock’ gathering I admit delay the proposition that Eliot season upon and abandoned from the advanced to conceive the bestow. Orthodox by Rabate’s reasoning that the advanced haunts Eliot’s labor then tshort is fur to hint in twain strains that Eliot season upon romance to conceive the bestow. Eliot constructs conspicuous intimations to James in ‘Portrait’ a nineteenth epoch upstart, and The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlowe but too assumes the discoverer to guard discaggravate Arnold’s ‘The Buried Life’ which occurs as disquisition in the strain advanced ‘Portrait’ is a exhibitist select on the reservation of the mysteries of the inclinet and containment of trepidation institute in Arnold’s quotation. Southam denotes in the prelude to A Student’s Guide to Selected Poems of T.S. Eliot (1968, p.7) that intimations and hushs for fur of Eliot’s labor amplify into compendiums for his posterior labors as the rejoiceer continued his studies of anthropology. This denotes to me that Eliot expected his discoverers to esteem the advanced and Sean Lucy’s assumption that the romance must not be lost seems to be a reflexive subject betwixt Eliot and the discoverer.
Equally Eliot’s occasion was to do as Sultan has concluded in his nice essay and originate a new era at a season of cogitation. Whether Eliot and his contemporaries such as Woolf and Joyce were waved by a gregarious vindication to the manner of majority veer, a reaction inherited from the Romantics, is calm?} uncertain. Nevertheless Eliot introduced a new determination of romance in the ameliorationd reason through the inner, respectful reasoning, orthodox unintermittently aggravate by Laforgue’s fancys on metaphysics and abstractions. In twain ‘Love Song’ and ‘Portrait’ these consequences of introspection are intermittent by distractions of existence as polite-mannered-mannered as by cogitations on torpor. Eliot is softening altruism delay a ruthless select on existence. It is the wedding of the old and the new that invigorated a new admission to balbutiation that dared not barely discoverers but too his contemporaries: ‘As I sun mywilful upon the fervent and ravishing endliness of one of his continuitys, and return that I must construct a thoughtless and hazardous hop to the proximate, and so on from continuity to continuity, enjoy an acrobat exodus precariously from bar to bar, I cry out, I avow for the old decorum’s…’ so heeded Virgina Woolf in 1924 (Southam, 1968, p.2), making a conspicuous separateion betwixt the advanced and Eliot’s new origination. The technique anticipates Joyce and is the gentleman instituteation of exhibitism as triumphed by twain Rabate and Sultan. Eliot was a studious occasionary – capefficient of preserving and developing rejoiceeric memories – a priestly victory that precedent and posterior propagandists could barely craving for.
Eliot, T.S. (1948) Notes towards the Determination of Amelioration Faber and Faber, London.
Eliot, T.S. (1969) Prufrock and Other Observations Faber and Faber, London.
Mays, J.C.C. (1984) Future Poems: from Prufrock to Gerontion. The Cambridge Guide to T.S. Eliot ed. A. David Moody, London: Cambridge University Press.
Menand, L. Discovering Modernism: T. S. Eliot 1987, Oxford University Press.
Sultan, Stanley (1985) Journal of Exhibit Literature, Vol. 12, Issue 1, Open University library, Academic Search Full database.
Smith, Graggravate (1951) T.S. Eliot: Poetry and Plays, Chicago: University of Chicago
Rabate, Jean-Michel. (1984) Romance and T. S Eliot. The Cambridge Guide to T.S. Eliot ed. A. David Moody, London: Cambridge University Press.