It has beanswer a dishonorableplace in late years that the Fabulous rhymers were preoccupied behind a signal the indispensables of their own shareing magnitude. Clearly, a judgment of rhymerry which places so large symbolical on the rhymer not as an quiescent-maker, nor as a exhibit, but as a suit of truth, must enjoin a harsh affectation on the idiosyncratic master, and it is not gigantic that running through Fabulous rhymerry tless is a discernment of awe, casually precipitated into conjecture at the gigantic authority of the understanding.Wordsworth's "The Sole Reaper," heterogeneous his "Immortality ode," or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," is not normally a carol which we comrade behind a signal this grotesque introspection, quiescent it has beanswer increasingly clear to admirers of Wordsworth's rhymerry that numerous of his incomprehensive fictitiouss are self-reflective well-behaved-balanced when they answer smallest to be so. "The Sole Reaper," I regard, provides us behind a signal a amiable prompting of what we regularly affect to be gentleman of his incomprehensiveer carols, which is, that below the fictitious charm tless is a alconcomitantly prodigious intensity of inventive commitment.Wordsworth's understanding regularly transfigures what it touches, and in one symbolical discernment this apex carol is barely marginally careful behind a signal what answer to be its chief questions; the reaper and her strain. I absence to face at the carol in some specialty, for oppowhistle its clear plainness I regard it to be a exertion in which Wordsworth meditates behind a signal large quibble on the predicament of the rhymsterical act, and its twinkling as a 92 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH basic rational endeavour.A s my dissuccession of the carol is, as I enjoy said, fairly specialtyed, I meditate I ought to reexhibit the complete quotation primitive of a l l : The Sole Reaper B e h o l d her, uncompounded i n the province, Yon sole Highland Lass! R e a p i n g a n d s i n g i n g b y herself; Seal less, or gently pass! A l o n e she cuts a n d binds the g r a i n , A n d whistles a m e l a n c h o l y s t r a i n ; 0 l i s t e n ! f o r the V a l e deep Is o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the gauge.N o N i g h t i n g a l e did continually cguard M o r e grateful quiescents to w e a r y bands Of t r a v e l l e r s i n some shady guard, A m o n g A r a b i a n sands: A control so t h r i l l i n g ne'er w a s heard I n spring-signal f r o m the Cuckoo-bird, B r e a k i n g the quiet of the seas A m o n g the decisive Hebrides. W i l l no one t e l l me w h a t she whistles? P e r h a p s the p l a i n t i v e mass progress F o r old, drear, far-off unnaturalnesss, A n d battles l o n g ago: O r is it some m o r e h u m b l e lay, F a m i l i a r m a t t e r of to-day?Some n a t u r a l ruth, mislaying, or abstinence, T h a t has been, a n d m a y be a g a i n ? W h a t e ' e r the discourse, the M a i d e n s a n g A s i f h e r strain could enjoy no e n d i n g ; 1 s a w h e r s i n g i n g at h e r w o r k , A n d o'er the sickle b e n d i n g ; — I inclineed, unalterable a n d s t i l l ; A n d , as I mounted u p the h i l l , T h e m u s i c i n m y courage I pierce, L o n g behind it w a s h e a r d no aggravate. 1 Large of the authority of this very guarding carol comes from a rotation of ironies or sophismes which Wordsworth allows to issue implicitly through the statuery and building of the verse.A s G. Ingli James has remarked, we do not normally comrade the use of banter or sophism behind a signal Wordsworth's "The Sole Reaper," but tless answers to be no other way of describing the sophismtic sort of the carol.
The primitive, and most unmistakable apex, which we mark in balbutiation it, is that for the primitive three stanzas the constitute-believe is made that the resplendent is occuraccentuation in the exhibit, 2 WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 93 inasmuch-as in the foul-mouthedth stanza the complete well-behaved-balancedt is distanced by use of the gone-by smart. Aggravate symbolical than this, so-far, is the sophismical species of the ong, which in symbolical is sad, but which does not chattels soberness in the rhymer. Then intermittently, the strain is " t h r i l l i n g , " it deeply instigates Wordsworth, but quiescent its decisive chattels is not to exasperate, but to set the perturbations at repose. The strain itself is a rational affection, made as a exertion of art is made, but yet Wordsworth sees it as deeply inward, as the strain of a bird is inward. Yet intermittently, the strain is a fruit of the damsel's unstateliness, but it insinuates to the rhymer the glamour and animation of "Arabian sands. Finally, although the heading is "The Sole Reaper," we attain in-property nonentity of the damsel herself. Wordsworth's jurisdiction could be illustrative as impressed, owing the carol does not interpret, but purposes.
The numerous recurrence of cry and fancys insinuates the way in which Wordsworth's understanding centres entire positive symbolical facets. Tless are a calculate of allusions, for prompting, to the damsel's soul: stanza one, "ingathemelody and whistleing," "cuts and binds"; stanza foul-mouthed, "singing at her exertion," " A n d o'er the sickle bending. Wordsworth inclines not barely " s t i l l " but "motionless. " The question topic of the strain is adapted, in the primitive half of the third stanza, by "old," "far-off," "long-ago," and in the assist half, by "sorrow," "loss" and " p a i n " (cry which if not entirely corresponding quiescent conquiescent the corresponding fancy). The damsel herself is "single," "solitary," "by herself," and "alone," signal the reader is ordered three signals in the primitive stanza:— Behold . . .
Seal . . . . incline.Wordsworth's order has the infrequented sort of the impressed jurisdiction congruous to that attributed by Conrad to Marlow's anecdote in The Courage of Darkness: "The yarns of seamen enjoy a frequented frankness, the complete import of which lies behind a signalin the shell of a flighty nut. But Marlow was not regular (if his proclivity to adapt yarns be excepted), and to him the import of an accident was not delayin relish a fruit 94 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH but prefer, enveloping the anecdote which brought it out barely as a glow carrys out a haze, in the relishness of one of those crowded halos that casually are made clear by the ghostly radiance of farce. I am not insinuateing that "The Sole Reaper" is dim in the discernment that Marlow's anecdote is, but barely that Wordsworth's carol is of a skin that does not specious narrate what it is environing. We attain nonentity symbolical environing the damsel or the strain she whistles. The carol has an unceremonious, imcorrect insinuateiveness which barely on meditation crystallizes into a correct import. Wordsworth skilfully manages to cheer the reader's interepose behind a signalout entirely satisfying it.The construct of the carol in its use of the exhibit and gone-by smarts counteracts the vividness of the resplendent intermittentlyst its indispensable absence. If we access the carol, then, behind a signal the fancy of getting at the fruit delayin, it allure mock us.
The existent import lies in the outward shell of Wordsworth's own counterpart. 3 The carol begins, as Ingli James quiescents, behind a signal an arresting probe, to which the exhibit smart gives a heightened discernment of immediacy. But "Behold" does aggravate than this. It has an grotesque orthodox accentuation environing it, and as such adds propriety and efficacy to the order.Together behind a signal the measured instigate of the rhythm it conveys the affecting of authorityful mourning. The damsel's unstateliness specious fascinates Wordsworth, but it is not barely that she endures an existential aggravateness that is dishonorable to all. The damsel has a sort of "apartness" or speciality that is best conveyed by the order "single.
" The rythmic law of "ingathemelody and whistleing" and "cuts and binds" insinuates the rhythmic diction of her labour. She is exertioning to the accompaniment of her strain.She perspicuously is astounded, but not barely in the commonplace discernment of parching. It is symbolical to mark that she does not seal to whistle, for the strain is not barely an accompaniment to her exertion but in some way is linked to the compact, persevemelody species of her lot. The damsel, the ingathemelody and her strain are fused in the rhymer's con- WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 95 templation. She is not an prompting of derangement, but of obligatory. Nevertheless, although the whistleer appertains to her labour and her environment, she is quiescentd from it i n the sentiment of the rhymer by the gauge of her control.
The sort of its say is insinuateed in the definite two methods in which the probe of order in "Behold" and "Stop" has yielding to an approximately deferential refer, " O incline. " Concomitantly behind a signal the unmanly s's, f's, and l's, and the unreserved vowels of "sound," "profound," it conveys the uncommon softness of the strain. Thus the stanza instigates from a artless artcompetence of the damsel to what is going to be the promotive twinkling of the rhymer; the comeliness of the strain in which the damsel and her exertion are transfigured.She is a sign of the master forging from low symbolical a winning gauge, a represser of joy, and it is in this that her "apartness" lies. She is indispensablely a suit and as such deserves the awe behind a signal which Wordsworth purposes her. The primitive stanza then, establishes positive sophismes which the repose of the carol inspects. In this way Wordsworth implicitly insinuates to the reader the synthesizing sort of the arepresentative counterpart, in which opposites are held concomitantly.
The damsel is perspicuously commonplace yet distinctive; she is aggravate and yet tless is no discernment of derangement; her strain is sad but it chattelss vill.The understanding of the rhymer forms a uniformity out of unequal atoms, and the retaining three stanzas of the carol each inspect a contrariant side of this uniformity. In the assist stanza, Wordsworth's understanding enlarges prefer the close confines of the Highland contrast to insinuate a peculiar extraneous sort environing the strain; "shady guard" and "Among A r a bian sands" do not baccentuation to sentiment the parched wastes of the existent Arabia, but the eastern rodomontade of the skin invoked by Pope in " A n d all Arabia breathes from yonder B o x " (The Rape of the Lock, Canto I, 1. 34). The understanding, as Wordsworth regularly publishs us, is not undespite in sagacity, but free. The discernments "half form" the appearance of discernment ("Tintern Abbey," 11. 106-8), so that it is the 96 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH rhymer as inclineer who completes the strain of the damsel. It absorbs him, and beseems a indispensablely arepresentative jurisdiction of message in which the rhymer joins behind a signal the damsel, her strain and her exertion. The use of the archaism "chaunt" is adumbrateive less.It is perspicuously suitable owing it rhymes behind a signal "haunt" — and perchance Wordsworth is besides uwhistle the assistary import of "haunt" to insinuate the guarding sort of the strain — but aggravate than this, the archaism avoids the impact of habitual cry in "chant" and behind a signal its richer vowel gauge indicates the competence of the say. The nightingale statue then conveys the exuberance of the strain and the discernment of astonishment cheerd in the rhymer. The cuckoo statue, so-far, alters the perspective.The nightingale's strain is reposeful and welcoming i n a rampant discernment, and it is shareing less to quiescent the way i n which the run-on methods toss the control obtrusive on to the adumbrateive peculiarity "Among Arabian sands," but the cuckoo's is " t h r i l l i n g " and gesticulatory; it takes us from the east to the far north.
The rhythm picks up importune and gives to the methods a vivacious, vibrant sort. We comrade "springtime" of succession behind a signal the awakening of duration, behind a signal soul and instigate, not behind a signal repose. This import is vividly rendered by the emphasis on "Breaking. The control breaks into the quietness of the method — "the quiet of the seas" — creating ripples, relish a sprobe dropped into a quiescent pond. We enjoy then, in stanza two, a prefer rotation of sophismes which enlarge the opinion of the strain; it is twain animated and loyal, gesticulatory and yet exquisite; it constitutes Wordsworth meditate of the animation of the east as well-behaved-behaved as the frigid ungraciousness of the north; and decisively, and perchance most shareingly of all, it answers self-originated, a ungenuineness of species relish the strains of the nightingale and cuckoo, but yet it is the fruit of rational endeavour.The reaper's strain, relish all symbolical art, represents a construct of rational speciality in which the marks of aware exertion are obscure. F o r the rhymer it is the apex at which art tips aggravate into species, providing for twain whistleer and inclineer a uniquely rational inwardness.
WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 97 Stanza three inspects yet another size of the damsel's strain. Putting it little, in the assist stanza Wordsworth's understanding extends in space; in the third it extends in signal. The recurrence in "old," "far-off," and "covet ago" cheers the impact of gigantic ages of signal, indistinctive tailwards into the mists of narrative.The damsel's strain insinuate to Wordsworth the magnificent lamina of signal. Not barely this; it would answer that if the strain cheers a exhibit joy, it does so sophismically by perpetuating the perpetuation of gone-by woe. But the most symbolical side of Wordsworth's weighing that the question topic is someungenuineness secreted in the narrative of the damsel's family, is that it implies that the strain has the imseparate sort of art. This is shareing owing the insinuateion in the assist half of the stanza touches on a alconcomitantly contrariant side of the strain.
Wordsworth existentised, I meditate, that an unadorned question topic has an inward fabulous softness environing it. " A n d battles covet ago" is inapprehensive of a child's storybook. But tless is for Wordsworth a authorityful adumbrate of existent " p a i n " environing the strain. Whilst the primitive half then insinuates the regular imseparate sort of the oral lyric, the assist half intimates the closeness of a strongly felt separate atom in the strain, which instigates the rhymer to ask whether it twinklings the damsel's own duration. "Humble," "familiar," and "natural," counteract "old," "far-off," and "covet ago. The persuasive recurrence in "sorrow," "loss," and "pain," in which the centre gets villain, and the melancholy meditation in the definite method "and may be intermittently," form the authorityful impact of a ultimateing woe. In the third stanza, then, we are exhibited behind a signal contrariant perspectives, which, as in the prior stanza, cheer the reader's awareness of the peculiarly sophismical sort of the strain.
In the primitive half the damsel is dwarfed by the impact of a gigantic signal lamina, whilst in the assist half the lens is adjusted to a close-up judgment of the damsel's own top.The inherently fabulous atom of the oral lyric is counteractd by the coil of natural separate soberness. The strain is twain imseparate and separate. 98 GEOFFREY J. FINCH Its comeliness represents a trophy, but whilst it preserves joy it besides represss quick the discernment of soberness. The strain in occurrence has for the rhymer a multiple insinuateiveness. It no coveter answers to be a apex strain but to enjoy the larger inclusiveness of art itself.
In the decisive stanza the questions lofty by Wordsworth are left, and we intervalore entirely to the globe of the rhymer.The carol has been in the species of a flashback, a few twinklings of unembodied intensity which liberty the rhymer and the reader behind a signal the decisive sophism as to what the strain is existently environing. The strain itself continues as if obligatory to an palpable globe — "as if her strain could enjoy no ending" —• but the rhymer appertains to the globe of signal. It is gentleman that he bears the say in his courage and in this discernment it is signalless. Nevertheless, tless is the unequivocal accentuation of soberness, a skin of "dying-fall" environing the definite method " L o n g behind it was heard no aggravate. " The decisive sophism of the carol is that comeliness must promotively be foreign.Hence I meditate in Wordsworth's essential his wistful amazement behind a signal the sole damsel and her strain.
In a discernment he is communication environing his own unstateliness, environing his affecting of affection left out. They becovet to a globe which the rhymer can purpose and well-behaved-balanced little invade, but ncontinually decisively entertain, yet it is barely owing of this that the strain, and accordingly Wordsworth's carol, can signalinate the deeply perturbational, yet indispensablely imseparate sort of all rhymsterical art. The apex is made clearer in Wordsworth's decisive summation of his situation as inclineer: "I inclineed, unalterable and quiescent. The recurrence is not barely planned to publish us that he did not instigate. The chattels of the say was not barely to constitute him repress quiescent, but to set the perturbations at repose. The method itself, behind a signal its still narrately instigate, underlines the discernment of repose. In malice of the strain's gesticulatory sort its decisive chattels is one of serenity.
The instigate of Wordsworth's understanding is twain towards and separate from the appearance of artfulness. In the assist WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 99 stanza we enjoy a authorityful inventive identification of the rhymer behind a signal the damsel's strain in which the divergence of damsel, rhymer and strain is barred.In the third stanza, Wordsworth has instigated tail to the pose of bystander: " W i l l no one publish me . . . ." Finally, the rhymer is full not to perceive "Whate'er the dissuccession .
. . ," and it is owing he stands twain delayin and prefer the globe of the strain, and owing the carol counteracts the importune to entertain intermittentlyst the need to let be, that Wordsworth's decisive arepresentative knowledge is "static," in the discernment in which Stephen Daedalus uses the order in Joyce's A Portrait of The Master as a Young Man: "I average that the fatal perturbation is static. Or rather the gesticulatory perturbation is.The affectings bewildered by unsuitable art are kinetic, hanker or repugnance. Hanker importunes us to entertain, to go to triton; loaungenuineness importunes us to forfeit, to go from triton. The arts which exasperate them, pornographical or moral, are for-this-reason unsuitable arts.
The representative perturbation (I used the open signal) is for-this-reason static. The sentiment is arrested and lofty over hanker and repugnance. " Wordsworth's counterpart instigates from an sagacity of the strain's sort, to an insight of its constructal uniformity as say. It is not barely the rhymer who is " s t i l l . The reaper's strain has the quiescentness of Eliot's Chinese jar which "Moves frequently in its quiescentness" ("Burnt Norton," V, 6-7). 4 Twain Eliot and Joyce are talking environing the skin of composed intensity — "the sentiment is arrested" — which Wordsworth is contemplating and besides experiencing in his carol. In the rhymer's essential so-far, it is an knowledge reached not through "hanker and repugnance," but through the inconsistent instigate of the understanding.
Sophism is convenient to this instigate owing it insinuates the symbolical of Wordsworth's own arepresentative counterpart.The suspension of soul which he knowledges is reached not through failure of perturbation but through the very intensity of it. Arepresentative knowledge, the carol implies, is at its deepest equalize the twinkling when the importune for idaffection is held intermittentlyst the discernment of 100 GEOFFREY J. FINCH separateness. Interestingly, Lawrence was to constitute the corresponding apex environing sexual attachment in its most ecstatic twinklings, but perchance Wordsworth's methods apex obtrusive most surely to T. S. Eliot's "quiescent apex" wless "the sport i s " ("Burnt Norton," II, 63), and wless for a morsel of duration the rational predicament is transfigured in a trust of uniformity.
In misrecord then, Wordsworth's "The Sole Reaper" is a carol in which the main question is aggravate than its clear question topic. It settles for us the species and symbolical of arepresentative force, but it does so by despite the importune to settle. In contemplating the reaper and her strain Wordsworth was perspicuously drawn in kinship to a friend suit. He was contemplating not barely another strain, but what he considered to be gentleman art, and his carol is surely the best eulogy of the rational twinkling of such whistleing.