This silence gives the automatic contrivance of the arrangement in topic and past tentative experienceings which livelihood the systematicty of the odd pattern constrained there. Moreover, this silence contains pristine misrecords and prior controversys. A arrangement moored of a resounding cylinder occupied delay constrainingd air (up to 5 ATM), and a rubber, clear exceptioned ring, as a confirm was Investigated theoretically and tentatively. Under a systematic constraining dissimilarity (Internal minus sky constraining - p) and manifest confirming vigor, the rubber confirm is compact (h) and should forefend air leakage. However, exemplifications appearance a consecutive, nonlinear subside in p(t) as a business of interval. A few chaste (macro) thermodynamic patterns for predicting p(t), via touching air progress through cracks, feel been suggested antecedently, established on [1] but they feel failed to explain the imagine in topic due to the coupled constitutive properties of rubber and a survey that avow the myth of micro-scale "tunnels" in the rubber-lid interface, through which the air can by. A odd heuristic pattern, which takes a proportion conserving affinity betwixt the micro-scale air tunnels and the rubber polymer coasts is contemplated. Thus, polymer equations established on statistical thermodynamics are applied on the wake streamlines. Using this pattern, there are lewd unset parameters whose objurgates are substance established by the tentative imagines, concordant to the semi-phenomenological rubber pattern of Mooney-Rivaling. An excusable congeniality betwixt the pattern and corporeal entity of the inquisitiveness. Many banner trendiest feel been trained and failed to explain p(t) correspondently, including 3rd ordain polynomial which has as-well lewd parameters. Key-words: - Sealing, Constraining fall, Air leakage, Air-polymer affinity, Polyp-Air, Micro-Macro, Language. Ascribing air progress through cracks are profitable in [2], [3], but those feel to be adjusted to explain air progress through rubber-metal interface. In the subjoined silence we accomplish explain the exemplification set automatic contrivance and the last arrangement shape itself. Moreover, we accomplish announcement some results touching the exemplification. 1 Introduction An air constraining vessel (up to ATM) is moored of a resounding cylinder and a cover, and confirmed delay a rubber, clear exceptioned ring, as seen in Fig. L . Under a systematic constraining dissimilarity (internally minus sky constraining - p) and manifest confirming vigor, he rubber confirm is compact (h) and should forefend air leakage. However, exemplifications appearance a consecutive, nonlinear subside in p as a business of interval for minute objurgates of h (up to of the judicious upright size - ho). A few chaste (macro) thermodynamic patterns for predicting p(t), by describing air progress through cracks (of ardor regenerator for copy) , feel been priorly suggested but they feel failed to correspondently explain the imagine in the subjoined inequitable setup due to the coupled constitutive gear of rubber and a survey that avows the myth of micro-scale "tunnels" in the rubber-lid interface, through which the air can by. A few past logical and corporeal patterns of 2 Exemplification Setup 2. Introduction and Targets Regard the axis-symmetric setup where the interior constraining is set to a incapricious objurgate, which is incongruous from the ethereal constraining (fig. 1). The "Force" forefending from the piston to pop up and as-well causes the rubber confirm (black) to be subjected to solitary compression. Thus, the upright elongation - primaryly ho - subsides to a moderateled objurgate h. Once blasted plenty, the confirm forefends leakage of air from the internally. Silence that donation to the surpassing airway the external style of the confirm is subjected to the interval estimate. . 2. 1 Variables and their measuring methods p - delay a computerized constraining deposit established as disunite of the cylinder.. Ho (operating upright size of the rubber pattern) - delay a micrometer h (running upright size of a rubber pattern) - using LIVED that way the dismemberment of the piston from its operating vigor standing. T (time)- by the computer clock. T (the temperature of the gasket or air) - delay a thermocouple established as a disunite of the cylinder. Singly for concomitant facts collecting proposes, not a moderateled capricious. The deep target is to canvass the constraining vs.. Interval p(t) imagine. The confirm's business, is to guard the constraining dissimilarity p=P-Pa betwixt the two gasket sides. We'd love to watch how the size of the judicious constraining dissimilarity and the moderateled dislocateation rule on the imagine. The arrangement of air leakage through the confirm is yet to be established but when colliquation is aggravatelooked one can deem that the air progresss through the rebuttal interface. Our judicious systematicty is that air progresss through limited cracks-love interracial byages. The systematicty environing the colliquation arises from mineral sentiment environing the diagnosis interval of gas colliquation through rubber in diverse applications, which is noblely larger than these exemplifications periods (environing 1000 seconds). For copy, established on [4], the constraining fall in 1000 seconds via colliquation in an UN-defected aircraft exhaust having concordant constraining dissimilarity is 0. 06% at most. There is ample toil on air progress through embodied cracks. 2. 2. 2 Important Technical Aspects See details in fig. 2 for the subjoined regardations. Deformation needs to be systematic. The vigor is actuated via a noble screw, enables measuring the upright dismemberment delay a LIVED and modeobjurgate he objurgate to it delay satisfying preciseness (10 microns). The mind of the core ball is to reimpel the innocent upright motion delayout rotational motion and torsion. Confirm eccentricity: the exemplification should be contrivanceed to convince noncommunication vigor as symmetrical as feasible, although it'll never be chimerical, so it'll be skilled to try coreing the confirm and fly creating surpassing air progress sites due to bankruptcy of proportion in the compression ground. In the subjoined setup "operative tolerance" is satisfying. Starting the "stopwatch" (interval estimate): really, the confirm is ruled by the way the constraining and dislocateation are reached. To aggravatepower this total, the exemplification should be done in a way hopeful results recalcitrant from the judiciousization. Exemplification was stopped when constraining shifts are very minute. 2. 2 Regulate of Exemplification Prior exemplifications appearanceed a consecutive air progress and constraining fall all concurrently the exemplification. The unconcealed p(t) imagine exhibited "exponential decay" imagine of demeanor. We shall now briefly explain the exemplification capriciouss allied issues such as the myth of p(t=O) and h , and the protocol of set-on-footing/stopping Vigor pa 2. 2. 3 The Exemplification We estimate p as a business of interval, and enumeobjurgate owe p(t=O)= pop and h rule this imagine. Watch fig. 2 for the express setup. The pristine stalk is dislocateing the confirm. Than, hole the deep valve ( not in fig. 2), united to the furnish elongation, and erection the constraining to a desired, permanent objurgate (intermission for stabilization is sharp). The subordinate valve was then secretive and p(t) was than monitored. Figure 1 - Schematic exception of the exemplification setup. The compact air is colored delay cerulean. -2- Screw ones on the style) impel noblely due to compression and each coast stop attached to its primary Junctions. The Junctions are getting closer ND solid and so are the coasts in the size of the rubber gasket, which were solid plenty already to forefend air progress. However, the style isn't a mosaic of Junctions but past of a fuse of Junctions and rambling coasts - coasts united singly to one union. Had the style was a lattice of Junctions, the apposition artisan would feel been concordant to metal-on-metal artisans. But this is not the contingency. Due to those rambling coasts, the style singly embedded delay Junctions and betwixt them - an annoyance of rambling stands, rolled and smeared on the Junctions under them, forefending the myth f fina style apposition. In ordain to recognize the air progress arrangement, let's watch hypothetically on a metal-on-metal confirming. Each metal roll has its own style imagine delay peaks, discouragements and defects where air can progress in and experience its way out. The verisimilitude of complete confirming - when one plan's peaks are pressed promptly on the other plan's discouragements - aspires to cipher. Practically, the metal-metal interface frequently stop roads that the air can use for its escaping. We associate to that birth as "use of built in roads". The conclude subsequently the independence of rebuttal confirming aggravate the metal-metal one is he elasticity and obedience of the rubber. When pressed on the metal style, the rubber's rambling coasts and smooth some of the Junctions and periodical coasts on the rubber style glut the discouragements of the metal. Past the coasts are flimsy compared to the discouragement, they enter-into the "built in roads" and vigor (regard a condensed bush in a progressing large stream). This is the proposal subsequently "labyrinth" confirm -forcing the air to progress in a involved road in ordain to lessen constraining leakage. The size of a rubber monomer is environing 5 LIVED sail Piston Subordinate Valve Aspect 2 - the express setup 2. 3 Prior results and Conclusions (t) imagine was narrative for incongruous judicious constraining dissimilaritys and rubber dislocateations. The parameters collocate is: pop=l [ATM] to 5[ATM], to -0. 2. Prior results appearanceed that p(t) graphs were incongruous regardably one imagine the other for the corresponding judicious stipulations. It was concluded that the exemplification is very sentient to the rubber gaskets incongruous style imagine aggravate the incongruous specimens. See fig. 4 for details. On the other operative, when repeating the exemplification delay the corresponding gasket, as crave as the exemplification is not too crave so the rubber won't befeel incongruously due to benefit, we get concordant graphs (fig. 3). Controversy 3. 1 Air Progress The contemplated automaticly pattern of leakage is established on three exhibitions. Exhibition I includes placing the rubber gasket and dislocateing it to the set objurgate h. The system is explaind in aspect 5. The polymer macrostructure is moored of coasts and Junctions. According to unprepared automatic patterns [5], the Junctions (at lowest, the exemplification #2,#7 exemplification #2 constraining[ATM] 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 Aspect 3 - 4 exemplifications delay ZEE%. The graphs are concordant, delay apex of 0. 2[ATM] constraining dissimilarity. The dissimilarity is due to inability to reconstruct the corresponding judicious stipulations and due to benefit effects. Oho 1 500 2000 interval[sec] Aspect 4 - constraining imagines in exemplifications #2, #7. pop?4. 1 EX-O. 148. -3- Aluminum Aspect 5 - gasket compression system angstrom, and the coasts are unconcealedly shorter than the medium polymer elongation, each coast is imagineed apex aggravateall elongation environing 5 micron. See [6] for past advice environing coasts elongation. However, this is not the end of the recital. Recall that the rubber coasts are rather pliant, absorbed an strict air Jet it influence deimagine the coasts, impel them secret, and imagine a noblely past seasonable road. Where it is really imfeasible in resounding confirming, when rubber-metal is noninsured the air can imagine its own road and not use the "built in" roads by delinquency. Of regulate, the coasts are love rises - tender them secret demand a transimagine of the air kinetic spectre to potential rise spectre. So we cling delay this trade-off: creating seasonable road where the attrition privation is minimal, or perhaps use the built in roads delay indicative attrition privation but rescue the spectre of the road myth. The rejoinder accomplish be absorbed by the partiality spectre maxim. The concludeable systematicty is when the constraining p is noble, the air is strict and passociate imagine a seasonable road. As crave as p subsides, the road becomes past and past curvy. When p is too minute, we cannot talk environing roads anypast past the air kinetic spectre isn't exalted plenty. Alternately, the air molecules set-on-foot strain on their way out (quiet in the interface, not in the size). Our pattern won't market delay that territory. Singly the territorys delay progress roads are in our cause. The perishing controversy was proved qualitatively. An exemplification hopeful its results is in its contrivance limits. Exhibition II of the exemplification is the constraining buildup. We unconcealed the deep valve, letting air to progress from the furnish elongation to the cylinder. The furnish elongation unindicativeness is moderateled and thus prominence the constraining internally the cylinder. At this exhibition, air is pumped in and leaks out at the corresponding interval but the importation objurgate is noblely nobleer then the leakage objurgate. When the raze of constraining reaches the desired one, and permanents, the subordinate valve is secretive and exhibition Ill is substance performed. In exhibition Ill, the air progresss out through the two rolls explaind in exhibition I in a style explaind aloft. 3. 2 Rubber Gasket Demeanor cylinder, and that constraining acts on the already blasted gasket as it wants to spend it. Due to the ordinary vigors, a attrition vigor (FRR) flying the gasket from spending. Under is a aspect appearanceing the system imagine the rubber aim of survey using vigors diagram on a upright exception. Let's take a banner attrition pattern. After a systematic raze of constraining is achieved, the attrition vigor FRR reaches its apex static size, which resources that the rubber is entering the dynamic attrition limit. While the constraining remain to growth, the rubber set-on-foots increasing its medium radius, so the radii dissimilarity - external opposite interior - and the top are decreasing due to incompressibility. Notice that h does not shift - the piston is agricultural - but the annotation subsides the burning of the attrition vigor smooth past. When apex p is achieved, exhibition Ill set-on-foots. The constraining begins to fall and the rubber enters the static fabrication raze anew. The attrition vigor sediment its subside until lastly it shifts its command and grows end to the dynamical raze. Afterwards, the rubber begins to subside its radius -4- until the apex-static-raze attrition vigor is plenty to continue the rubber gasket in locate. It is past than feasible that antecedently releasing the piston, the last medium radius is incongruous than the judicious. There is as-well the possibility of minute p and a influential plenty attrition vigor that surpass in custody the gasket in locate all aggravate the exemplification exhibitions. Important misrecord is that the dimensions which the air gluts stops incapricious at the start and at the end of the exemplification. That is, the defilement is happening at the average of the exemplification (if give). In ordain to obstruct the sinew of the prior abstracted controversy, a videotaped exemplification was enslaved. There, one we can see how the rubber spends and contracts delay the constraining (in [ATM] at the endground), where the motion is in microscope (it was videotaped using a periodical camera. The motion is unconditionally seen to the unclothed eye).