Ethno Religious Crisis in Nigeria: Causes and Remedy.
ETHNO RELIGIOUS CRISIS IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND REMEDY. BY MUHAMMAD GAMBO ISGOGO HASSAN ADAMU MAKUKU UMAR HAMIDU ALIYU ABSTRACT Entrance Nigeria is no hesitate a swarming commonriches of balance 88 darling (1991 population census) but as at now Nigeria’s population is estimated to be aggravate 120 darling idiosyncratics of distinct ethnic assemblages and abundant ghostly. Its idiosyncratics are multiformly select in the 36 says that made up the commonwealth. In individualization to this, the commonriches is blessed delay abundant economic potentialities which acceleration in the motion of the multimould idiosyncraticss through the ordain of economic entomb-dependence.
Though abounds delay anthropological and consistent medium, the empire has gone insurrection witnessed a sum of entomb and intra ethnic and godly exigency which rest to be an hindrance to its balanceall crop. The principles of gainments betwixt and delayin ethnic and godly assemblages could be seen in a sum of constituents, such as ways of propagating the ghostly, distrust and distrust betwixt the pomp of the multimould godly and ethnic assemblages, illiberality sciolism and obstinacy floatingst the two assemblages.
References are made in the pure productions, such as the Renowned Qu’ran and the Pure Bible on their trainings showing how if largely united to, the commonriches conciliate be in pacification. In this reference, the influential exigency authority not be un- conjoined delay the discontinuance of the trainings of these ghostly by their pomp. In the brochure, principles of these crises are discussed and some suggestions are granted which if set-correctly implemented conciliate promote as remedies to twain ethnic and godly exigency in the commonwealth. Ethnic Exigency In Nigeria.
In the opinion of Eleazu “the idiosyncratics of Nigeria are abundant and multitudinous”1. Actually, a commonriches delay a population of balance 120 darling idiosyncratics now and encircling 391 unanalogous ethnic assemblages2 delay unanalogous socio-political, economic, cultural and godly settings could be gainmented a commonriches of abundant and multitudinous idiosyncraticss. Delay this heterogametic species. Nigeria has thus, beappear a flowing pot wnear collective gainments and distinctly of ethnic species are skip to arise. Causes of ethnic exigency in Nigeria are abundant comprising of twain yearn and defective gainment constituents.
Tnear had been in the gone-by for specimen, main entomb-ethnic antagonism to assure drudges for twain domiciliary use and trans-Atlantic drudge traffic and restoratively, tnear were wars of expanding the territories of the multimould says, kingdoms and empires that made up what is today Nigeria. These wars were the ascendant activities of the multimould ethnic assemblages which became a constituent of acrid relation floatingst them in the gone-by. This birth of asperity betwixt the multimould ethnic assemblages was according to Ryder From the 18th antiquity afront when the drudge traffic replete weapons that made these gainments aid deleterious.
Internally, a animatedening of divisions delayin societies is courteous-mannered-mannered attested3. These wars principled main disgrace so that abundant old towns were relocated in mountainous areas or magnitude pleasant walls were concocted to escape the intrusion of enemies. It is rate noting that these precedent gainments were sponsored by the European drudgers. In this way one could say, the principle for such gainments was planted allowable in the bound antecedently colonial council. Drudge traffic on its own was an inanthropological act and for-this-reason a terrorist act.
In the colonial bound, the colonial way of dividing what is today Nigeria into three professional units had contributed greatly in shaping the offer day relation of distrust, awe and distrust floating the unanalogous ethnic assemblages in the empire. The professional units were:-Lagos subsidence, Southern Protectorate and Northern defendorate, in this preparation, the north was enclosing from the convenient council. This alierealm was to succeeding like a main involution on the relation betwixt the idiosyncratics of the north and those of the South, (East and West).
The involution became aid pronounced when in 1914, the three professional units were amalgamated. This operation was conspicuous by common distrust and rarely unreserved gainment betwixt the distinctd ethnic assemblages. One could say at this juncture that, this distrust and awe tranquil shapes the relation betwixt the idiosyncraticss of these multimould corners of the empire. This is so the evolution of the succeeding exigency of ethnic species in Nigeria. Today, Nigerians imcrowd inassure in the districts other than their own.
The sectional impressing aid manifests itself evidently in the insincere race in all aspects of the council betwixt the idiosyncraticss of the North, West and East. Tensions betwixt these idiosyncraticss beappear aid and aid eminent delay each arduous to defend its sectional entombest. On this music, Awolowo, summond in Ekeh, P. P. and Osaghae, E. E. eds blamed the British: For dividing the North from the South so utterly and effectively that the two were unanalogously and closely irreconcilably oriented4
With Federalism which was effecting to primarily to escape one ethnic assemblage dominating others and so defending the entombests of the minorities, the commonriches was unintermittently repeatedly rend into districts, each delay its autonomous vigor. In this collective preparation so, it was observed that: The colonial administrators like passed on to the Nigerian wards the prejudices which had qualifyd them consider and act in the assurance that this ambagious federation was a matrimony of scanty-interval betwixt incompatibles 5.
With this percussion in the minds of Nigerian idiosyncraticss, it beseems very hard for them to effect accordantly coincidently delayout such tribal gainments. Each of the mobs of the empire today effects singly for the entombest of its idiosyncratics and not the commonwealth, thus in these unaware races of each arduous to command the other, gainments of ethnic species manyly arise. Clear affirmation to this was that the collective parties of the primary Reunreserved were districtally arranged; Northern Peoples’ Congress (NPC), was for the North, Operation Assemblage (AG) was for the West (Yoruba) opportconcord National
Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) was for the East (Igbo). Equally the elder parties of the restorative reunreserved were singly the reincarcommonriches of those of the primary republic, Collective Party of Nigeria (NPN) for specimen replicated the NPC, United Party of Nigeria (UPN) was the AG coetaneous opportconcord the Collective Peoples Party (NPP) replicated the NCNC. Each of these effected tirelessly to defend the entombest of its geocollective zone, and in so doing, gainments arise.
A predicament to hint near was the coup and confrontd coup of January and July 1966 which came encircling as a effect of the invigilant conceit, gluttonous, illiberality and defectivecomings of the members of these three districts. The cut inflicted by the Nigerian affable war did not cicatrize set-correctly as tnear are tranquil moves for delaydrawal in the empire. Young-idiosyncratic ends in Nigeria are so seen as one main inquisitiveness which principles ethnic gainments in the empire. These young-idiosyncratic mobs were unintermittently unremembered in the socio-collective and economic affairs of the empire.
Nigeria was seen and guarded as the colonization of singly three mobs; Hausa/Fulani, Igbo and Yoruba. But succeeding plain Arthur Richard summond in Ekeh, P. P and Osaghae, E. E grown that: It is singly surroundings of British suzerainty which has made Nigeria one empire or one commonriches collectively, economically and plain collectively, tnear are thick differences betwixt the elder ethnic assemblages. They do not talk the similar articulation and they like very-abundant unanalogous subsidy and ways of vitality and they reoffer stages of culture. 6 From the 1950s cultivate era, the verity of Nigerian whole managely to develop.
Many young-idiosyncratic ethnic assemblages began to lineament in the animated races in the all aspects of council. This is executed through the construction of their own collective parties and associations in ordain to out do the activities of elder ethnic assemblages whom they honor and see as threats to their economic and collective aspirations. This distrust and awe by the young-idiosyncratic mobs balance the elder mobs rest a manifest lineament in the Nigerian socio-collective and economic activities and like in no sscanty estimate accelerationed in intensifying ethnic exigency in the empire.
The yearn to impede and economize the God dedicated economic potentials select in all compressiveness of the empire made the motions and steady colonization of unanalogous mobs in unanalogous districts of the empire infallible. Socio-collective and economic relations that prosper, exigency of start effect in main resonancees betwixt abundant mobs. In 2002 for specimen, tnear was a main gainment betwixt the Yoruba and Hausa balance the start of a regularity chaffer in Bodija, Ibadan and in Jos, the gainment is tranquil on betwixt the Hausa and some mobs balance who has the legitimate allowable of chieftaincy.
Cases of this species are numerous and too abundant to be hinted near. One can so tranquil see the traces of the British council in Nigeria on the end of sectionalism. It is rate hinting that succeeding forty disgusting (44) years of insurrection and barring divers calls for commonwealthal concord, associations of purely tribal entombest are managely in the empire. In the West, tnear is the Ooduwa Peoples’ Congress (OPC) for purely Yoruba idiosyncratics, in the East, tnear is the Ohaneze (Ndi Igbo) purely for Igbo idiosyncratics, opportconcord in the North, tnear is Arewa Consultative Forum for the northern idiosyncraticss.
It should be musicd that all these associations like been managely to instantly and unreservedly defend the entombests of their referenceive idiosyncraticss. Wnear their entombests resonance, it effects to gainments. Abundant ethnic crises in Nigeria are as a effect of the activities of these associations. It is very disheartening to add that these tribal associations and other purely tribally motivated motions are instantly cherished and sponsored by top serving and retired council idiosyncraticalities.
These foods singly acceleration in fueling exigency of ethnic species in the empire. Worst tranquil, is that ease and law urgement agents manyly procure causes when performing any commonwealthal assignment of pacification guardianship. These agents unreservedly food their idiosyncratics plain if they are the offenders. This end is no hesitate causing aid ethnic exigency and plain escalating the stout ones. One cannot so delink this whole of ethnic exigency delay the activities of the “area boys” who appear suddenly as the effect of the growing unpossession in the empire.
These assemblages of indolent, wandering, disgruntled and unpatriotic teenagers unnecessarily principle commotions and misnotice underneathneath the ruse of tribal ends to qualify them spoils and share-by-filching secret and unreserved resources. Area boyism is for-this-reason a vigor to account delay in causing tribal gainments in the empire. But it is rate hinting near that some of the activities of these area boys are in-great-measure engineered and sponsored by the self-minded, gluttonousy and unpatriotic politicians who by all medium and at all consume wan to win sselection or principle demandless commotions.
Under the ruse of tribalism, they for-this-reason permit such crises in the empire. Wickedness and exaggerated inconstruction by the crowd and the medium houses rarely mould the setting for tribal gainments in the empire. Such exaggerated intelligence conciliate singly atom up some ethnic assemblages to vindicate on some allowable victims. Almizan of 16th Zulkida 1420 for specimen reputed that balance 2000 Hausa idiosyncratics were killed by the Igbo in the East to vindicate the killings of Igbo in Kaduna7. The Igbo took this operation beprinciple the commonriches was incorrectly certified of the Kaduna exigency by the Today Newsbrochure of 21/2/2000. ollowing this, other elder towns in the empire managely brewing delay force. No one can quantify the station of atonement principled by these ethnic crises in Nigeria. Hundreds of thousands of speeds were past leaving subsequently them so abundant orphans and widows, abundant were maimed and cuted, secret and unreserved resources rate darlings of naira were injured. So the mobs of Nigeria are left in a horrorful say of everlasting metaphysical disgrace and awe distinctly those settling in a district other than their own.
In this way, the principle of commonwealthal cohesion which is the bedrock of pacification and arrestation tranquil rest a trance, Nigerians for-this-reason rest in either self-possessed war or unreserved war delay one another. Godly Exigency In Nigeria (Causes) The principles of godly exigency in Nigeria appear to like been an plaint that arises as a confuse to all careful burgesss of the commonwealth. The exigency are in-great-measure centered on sanctity though delay some mysterious motives. Sanctity which is manyly used as cbalance up is considered as one of the elder principles of the exigency in Nigeria.
Definition of Religion. Sanctity according to the Oxford Dictionary is defined as “one of the ways of concession that are installed on the assurance in the entity of a detail God or gods: Jewish sanctity, Christian Religion, Islamic sanctity and other globe ghostly8. It is so defined as, a detail entombest or swing that is very main in one’s vitality 9. Christianity is the assurance in Christ, the man that Christians admire is the son of God and on those trainings the Christian sanctity is installed.
The suit production 1998 says: the Christian concession is installed on the assurance in one God summarized in what is popularly realmal as Nicene Creed thus reads: We admire in one God, the father, the Almighty, manufacturer of creation and earth, of all that is seen and unnoticed. We admire in one Lord, Jesus Christ, God from God, scanty from scanty, penny God from penny God, begotten not made, of one entity delay the father, through him all monstrositys were made. For us men and for our preservation he came down from creation by the vigor of the Pure Principle he became coetaneous of the Virgin Mary and was made man…. 0 Islam as a sanctity is an Arabic expression and connotes dependence, resign and yielding to the laws of Allah. Islam is to penetrate into pacification and Muslim is one who compels his pacification wit Allah and man’s pacification wit Allah implies liberal dependence to his conciliate and pacification wit man is not singly to hold from misfortune, deterioration to another man but so o do cheerful-tempered-tempered-tempered to him. Christianity and Islam as ghostly of pacification publish pacification and co entity floating their unitents. The Bible says in the Production of Prophet Isaiah 9:6 Proclaimed Jesus Christ as “the prince of pacification”12.
It conciliate be appreciationless to see the pomp of this prince of pacification breaching the pacification that was announced. Installed on Islamic pacification training, Al-Ezzati observed, that: The drudgery of controlling the sinful to moral demeanor and persuading them to plug doing wickedness (Al-amir bil-al-ma-rouf wa-al-nahy anil-munkar) is laid on whole Muslim and this is why whole Muslim is reputed to publish allowableeousness and decency13 . Godly exigency in Nigeria appears to be as a effect of divergence from the trainings of twain ghostly.
Prophet Isa (Jesus) (AS) displayed a cheerful-tempered-tempered-tempered type and requested all his pomp to aspire. In the New Testament, the apostle Paul in his premonition to the Romans in provision 12:9, 10 & 18 pregnant them: Let attachment be delayout dissimulation, disesteem that which is misfortune, rend to that which is cheerful-tempered-tempered. Be cordial enthusiastic one to another delay fraternal attachment; in honour preferring one another. If it is feasible, as abundant as lieth in you, speed pacificationably delay all men14. In Galatians 5:22 pacificationful co-entity is illustrative as one of the Christian virtues.
The trainings of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) like shown in hypothesis and possession too, the allowable of neighbours twain Muslims and non-Muslims, in a Hadith which says: Whosoever happens to be such that his (or her) neighbours do not imcrowd assured of entity distressed from his misfortunes, conciliate not be admitted into paradise15. Another Hadith says : By Allah he has not artificial Iman (faith) and by Allah he has not artificial Iman. So it was said “who is that idiosyncratic O ye forerunner of Allah: He said, that one whose neighbours do not imcrowd trustworthy from the misfortune in him or (her). Bukhari narrated 16.
The aggravate traditions instruct accordant relation that is to be tolerated by twain pomp of the two concessions distinctly the Muslims. To stay aid from the Christian cause, the Pure Bible, in Peter 3:11 says: Let him eschew misfortune, and do cheerful-tempered-tempered, let him solicit pacification and follow it. For the eyes of the Lord are balance the allowableeous, and his ears are unreserved unto their suits. But the countenance of the Lord is repeatedlyst them that do misfortune 17. If such trainings are aspired by twain Muslims and non-Muslims of the globe, and Nigeria in detail, tnear conciliate be no godly exigency.
Most if not all of the exigency arisered out of sciolism. The offer competition tends to disregard all the aggravate trainings and belike recklessly as explained aggravate. Umar Ibn Khattab the restorative caliph said when sending multitude to the combat ground. Destroy not consequence trees, nor causative grounds in your track, be allowable and scanty the impressings of the vanquished, reference all godly idiosyncratics who speed in hermitage or convents, and scanty their edifice18. Ezzati aid explains how caliph Umar defended the idiosyncratics of the Book.
The killings, perditions entity executed in the ordain of engaging each other is not godly. In one of Jesus’ terminal sermons to his disciples in John 14:27, He said: Pacification I permission delay you, my pacification I grant unto you19. As hinted aggravate, the godly exigency in Nigeria are in-great-measure manifested out of none supply to the trainings of all the ghostly, gone all the Pure productions relish the Qur’an and the Bible instructes pacificationful co-entity of the idiosyncratics. The Qur’an unreservedly says in provision 2: length 190 Contest for the end of those that contest repeatedlyst you, but do not assault them primary.
Allah does not attachment aggressors20. It is for-this-reason not penny to say that the Muslim leaders or Christians of Nigeria are untaught of such lengths and the relation that stoped at the coming say, which is reputed to be aspired by the offer competition. Qur’an 2:256 says: Tnear should be no restraint in sanctity21. Another length says 109:6 Unto you your sanctity and unto me my sanctity22. The aggravate lengths shows that abundant ghostly could co-stop in comparison delayout gainment gone pomp of whole sanctity are enjoined to unite to their ghostly.
For specimen, in the interval of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), some ghostly stoped cause by cause delay Islam, and the prophet himself accorded abundant reference to the pomp of these ghostly. The Qur’an is liberal of trainings in which no hesitate encircling it, a control to those who are godly, who awe Allah and very abundant forbear from all kinds of sins and misfortune deeds which Allah has forbidden, and achievement of cheerful-tempered-tempered-tempered deeds which He has ordained. Divers crises arisered in abundant compressiveness of Nigeria from the moderate stage as tribal and succeeding rancid to godly exigency.
But the doubt is, were all these substantially godly exigency, if they were, were the forerunners of these crises untaught of such trainings of the renowned Qur’an and The Bible? One may relishly say that such exigency were not godly as such, gone the pure prophet says in one of his traditions that the class of a twin Muslim is singly allowable in three ways: 1. When a Muslim kills a Muslim twin, he conciliate be killed. 2. When he perpetrates apostasy (Ridda) and warned to grieve, if he refused, he conciliate be killed. 3. When a married man or married mother perpetrates adultery he or she conciliate be killed.
Again the forerunner of Allah (P. B. U. H) said: A delinquent conciliate not perpetrate filching at the interval he/she perpetrates it opportconcord he is tranquil a Mumin and drunkard conciliate no quaff at the interval he/she quaffs opportconcord he/she is tranquil a mumin, and the armed footpad conciliate not perpetrate footpady of the valuable monstrosity, delay idiosyncratics watching him at the interval he perpetrates footpady opportconcord he is tranquil a mumin23. The aggravate Hadith artistic the birth in Nigeria encircling those who call themselves godly and yet gain in such irgodly exigency. As marked out aggravate, the contiguous principles of which can for-this-reason be attributed to: A.
Pretensious sciolism of pomp of the dominant ghostly in their godly profession coupled delay noncommunication of decent supply to the trainings of their ghostly. B. Due to Noncommunication of Allah’s appreciation ethno – godly exigency arising from economic consequence from the leaders of Nigeria, abundant of the exigency are economically ablaze, e. g. delay all Nigeria’s oil riches, what has been executed to diminish the sufferings of the elderity magnitudees. In such a predicament, uprisings arise in the call of godly exigency wnear the frustrated Nigerians conciliate procure laws into their indexs in the call of defending the entombest of their multimould ghostly.
Though Muslims summon specimen of a hadith which says: If one sees an abomicommonriches he should set-right it delay his index and if that is not feasible, he should set-right it delay his diction and if that is not feasible he should abhor it in his character, the succeeding entity the weakest station of concession24. The aggravate Hadith shows the smooth of set-rightion to be embarked upon by any cheerful-tempered-tempered-tempered Muslim, not the set-rightion through perdition as it is executed in Nigeria. This is the set-rightion that is executed, not delay the privation of speeds or perdition of unreserved resources C.
Although Nigeria is a civil say, yet some top council officials procure favoring decisions in favour of their ghostly, distinctly on possession and other council affairs. This operation manyly provokes the pomp of other ghostly which accordingly effect to exigency in the call of sanctity. An specimen is that of pains by Christians encircling the Arabic inscriptions in the Nigerian prevalence, opportconcord on the other index the Muslims too pain encircling Friday not entity effect-operating day allowable relish their Christian countercompressiveness like Sundays as effect operating day.
D. Misnotice of the concept of shariah: Some Muslims and non Muslims in the empire are untaught of the all concept of shariah and for-this-reason, see it as an medium of cruelty and affront of anthropological allowables. Delay this void of truth construction of shariah, some Muslims and non Muslims confront its implementation unreservedly and in so doing gainments of godly species arise. To this end, restorative to these wholes must be sought in ordain to create a pacificationful collective environment for the balanceall crop of our country, Nigeria.
Suggestions As Remedies For Ethno-Religious Exigency In Nigeria. We like seen that the socio-collective narrative of Nigeria has been bedeviled delay course of gainments distinctly of ethnic and godly species. These gainments are so multitudinous, rarely delayin a dedicated sanctity or betwixt ghostly, so so is the predicament delay ethnic exigency. These exigency are mainly hindering the commonriches towards achieving one of its yearnd objectives of concord and arrestation which is the basic pre-requisite for any meaningful crop.
Below are a sum of suggestions which would promote as remedies to the many ethnic and godly exigency in the empire. 1. The way of imparting to the Nigerian burgessry the principle of patriotism should be revisited. Nigerians should be largely clever delay the ethics of patriotism. They should be made to procure the commonriches primary antecedently any sectional entombest. 2. Pomp of twain ghostly should prize and adnear strictly to the trainings of their concessions gone all ghostly are pacification-loving, the principle of tolerance ad connection conciliate be familiar so that Nigerians can effect delay one another pacificationfully. . The basic aim of the Federal Character Commission should be observed delay all appreciation of mainness. The aim is : “to grant whole burgess of Nigeria a appreciation of cognate to the commonriches barring the diversities of ethnic cause, culture, articulation or sanctity which may stop and which it is their yearnto tend, impede to the amplification of the federal Reunreserved of Nigeria”. If this aim is largely implemented, all Nigerians irappertaining of articulation, ghostly or sex conciliate like a appreciation of cognate and liberaler competition in all council affairs delayout acuteness.
In this way the impressing of one mob or sanctity dominating the other conciliate be discarded. 4. Construction of associations of purely tribal species should be out allowablely alarm. 5. Inter-faiths Mediation Centers should be familiar at all smooths of council. 6. Law urgement and ease agents should be re-oriented on the avail of entity impartial when putting down exigency of any species in the empire. 7. Standards should be set for publishing on all ghostly. In this way furious publishing by the scholars of multimould ghostly could be inferior. 8.
The paramount bodies of multimould ghostly in the empire should envigor the law controlling the supply of their assurance way. Muslims for specimen should be made to adduce Shari’ah. In the similar humor impression of ecclesial law should be tolerate . In this way gainments delayin and betwixt ghostly would be depressed. 9. Medium houses and the crowd should manyly be clear in their reports, distinctly when it involves exigency of ethnic and godly species. 10. As some of the exigency are principled deliberately by area boys and actual motions, this is substantially reflecting the economic birth of the empire.
Effort should be executed to diminish the activities of area boyism through possession and honest arrangement of the commonwealth’s riches. 11. Tnear should be whole war repeatedlyst the consumptive wholes of sciolism, indigence and ailment, for-this-reason promoting the courteous-mannered-mannered entity of the people that compel up the commonwealth. Notes And References 1. Eleazu, U. “History and Geography of Nigeria” in Eleazu U. Ed. Nigeria: The primary 25 years, Lagos Heinemann. 1985 -p3 2. Abdul Basir, A. A. & Bala, U. K, “In exploration of Lingua Franca/National Articulation Towards Sustainable Democracy for Commonriches Building”.
A seminar brochure offered at the 1st commonwealthal Conference arranged by School of Arts & Collective Sciences, F. C. E. Kontagora. From 26th – 30th April. 2004, p- 1 3. Ryder, A. F. C. “The Trans-Atlantic drudge Trade” in Obaro, I. Ed. Groundeffect of Nigerian History, Ibadan, Heinemann. 1980. p150 4. Ekeh, P. P. and Osaghae, E. E. (eds) Federal Character and Federalism in Nigeria, Ibadan, Heinemann. 1989; p 337 5. Ibid, p337 6. Ibid, p340 7. Al-mizan of 16th Zulkida, 1420; Similarly see all the unreservedations of Almizan and other Kaduna installed Newspapers published delayin the bound of the Kaduna exigency, I. . from 20th February, 2000. 8. Hornby, A. S. Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English, 6th Ed. New York. 2000. p 900 9. Ibid pp. 900 10. The Pure Bible: Authorized King James Version, U. S. A. Globe Publishing. Ioma falls Ioma 50126 p. 165 11. Edmund, P. Christianity in Northern Nigeria. 2nd Ed. Zaria, Gaskiya Corporation. 1976, p131. 12. Ibid,p. 131. 13. Ezzati, A. An entrance to the Narrative of the divulge of Islam, Lagos, Islamic Publication Bureau. 1979. p 4. 14. Ibid, p 116 15.
Idris, I. G. The demand of a Muslim (Bugyatul-Muslimina) English translation, Kauran Wali Islamic Publishers, Kaduna. 1979. p 49. 16. Ibid pp 49 17. Ibid in Peter 3:11 18. Ezzati, A. 1979 p. 5. 19. Authorized King James Version, John 14:27 pp. 78 20. King Fahd Complex The fine Qur’an, English Translation of the meanings and explanation. (1419 A. H). 2:190 21 Ibid, 2:256 22Ibid, 109: 6 23. Abdur Rahman, I. Doi. Shariah: The Islamic Law, Ta Ha Publications, London, 1984 p 355/6 24Idris, I. G. 1979. p. 50.