Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Causes, Effects and Remedies
ELEGBEDE SIKIRULAHI TUNDE DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, LAGOS , NIGERIA. ABSTRACT This pamphlet ponders suits of unbusiness in Nigeria as polite-behaved-behaved as the consequences and implications of disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. The pamphlet too amounts utilityous prompting and recommendations on how to overauthority disequalize in Nigeria. The pamphlet adopts tentative disminority to ponder the suits of unbusiness in Nigeria. The facts used in this consider is of two create primitive and unindicative facts.
However, for the primitive facts the questionnaire was used to importune solutions from the respondents. In falsification economic recession, councilal cunning, business of expatriates and occupation harmony wage insist extension the rebuke of unemployment. The consider marrow that planning for courteousized channel use in Nigeria has been established on guessperformance and must be re-evaluate. I. INTRODUCTION Economists are discompetent to fit on the suits of or cures for unbusiness (or everything else, it seems). The life of the Keynesian appreciation is that attacheds insist too uninfluential labour accordingly lifes insist too few property.
The pure apprehension was that unbusiness was discretional and could be freeed by regular chaffer hardnesss. The neo-pure plea is that there is a regular rebuke of unemployment, which reflects a absorbed rebuke of technology, idiosyncratic satisfactions and endowments. Delay easy compensation in a competitive labour chaffer, compensation reguslow to free the chaffer and any unbusiness that sweepings is discretional. The passing apprehension was that held by Milton Friedman and strongly governd council cunning in the give 1980s, but outside luck. There is, of progress, no isolated appreciation of unbusiness and no isolated disintegration.
Unbusiness can ponder as the calcuslow of race who are void in an area, frequently absorbed as a percentage of the sum performance hardness. 1 These absolute of mass or race are actively seeming for compensated business outside luck below the most-unconcealed economic mode. Unbusiness is the loftyest defy to belowplain and developing countries. the interrogativeness of disequalize unbusiness ( GU) as it is life conversant in the developing countries compose a portioicular amounts to performance chaffer and the unconcealed disposal of these countries.
From the satisfied disminority perceptions of job inquireers on the outcome of disequalize unbusiness in a consider conducted by Fajana (2000), the subjoined constituents were authorized as the elder suits of unbusiness in Nigeria: the hanker duration of judicious unbusiness unordered university disequalizes in Nigeria , rude manauthority planning and annotation of counselal facilities that sanction unduly excited the expectations of Nigerian minoritys , the economic recession , continued proportionality of expatriates in business , the gregariousity of NYSC ,the gregarious bargaining way, disequalize collocation to some create of jobs collocation to jobs in other location as polite-behaved-behaved as pursuit behaviour of employers and job inquireers, use of consummate intensive technology , expanded verdant- courtly travel , affected – inaffected sectors contrariantials. All these and frequent other constituents subscribe the suits of disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. The external of this pamphlet is to critically evaluates all these constituents so as to enumetrounce their contacts disequalize job inquireers in Nigeria and other LDCs.
The design of this pamphlet is to ponder all the multitudinous constituents that subscribe to disequalize unbusiness delay the apprehension to amount promptings and disintegrations on how to overauthority the amount of disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. This pamphlet terminate too ponder how the actions of the industrial relations actors subscribe to disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. This pamphlet intends to terminate the subjoined: 1- To substantiate the suits of unbusiness in Nigeria 2- To ponder the consequences and implications of disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. 3- To amount utilityous prompting and recommendations on how to overauthority disequalize unemployment. 4- To amount the frameperformance for advance studies in this area. 5- T o amount guidelines and knowledge for cunning createulation in overpowering unbusiness in Africa. II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2
Fajana ( 2000), and Standing( 1983) opined that unbusiness can be delineate as the recite of performancelessness conversant by mass who are members of the labour hardness who perceived themselves and are perceived by others as preferable of performance. Void race can be categorized into those who sanction never performanceed succeeding amount from the university and those who and those who sanction lost their jobs thereby inquireing reentry into labour chaffer. However, most of the anterior consider on unbusiness of minoritys distinctly of disequalizes unbusiness in developing countries ( Falae , 1971,Bhalla 1973;Diejomaoh,1979; Bear and Herve 1966;Bhagwati 1973; Diejomaoh and Orimolade 1971) sanction vergeed to disown the exceptional condition of the university disequalizes that are primitive continuance job inquireer.
This consider makes an endeavor to convergence on the university disequalize primitive job inquireer. According to William (1976) the aim of performance to compensated business is the issue of the outbud of consummateist fruitful relations. However, according to Fajana (2002) the concept of performance has not-wholly shifted from fruitful undertake itself to the overruling gregarious barkred. For illustration , it is solely in the appreciation of gregarious barkred that a dowager unconcealed a issue and causeing up manifestation can be said not to be performanceing ( Hayes and Nutman,1981;Iyoha ) UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA: TRENDS Succeeding the 1967-1970 courteous war in Nigeria , the stroke of disequalize unbusiness was reputed, rumored and feared( Fajana 2000).
In this compliments bigot Diejomaoh ( 1979) in a consider conducted at the courteousized riches item of the university of Lagos tranquillity that the stroke of disequalize unbusiness betwixt 1965 and 1972 was not a grave amount opposed to what is life dreaded. Similarly , Folayan Ojo ( 1979) attributed whatever equalize of disequalize unbusiness ( presumably uninfluential ) during the duration 1965-1972 to ; tedious bureaucratic machinery for the waying of contact for jobs and the govern design might sanction suitd some disequalizes to halt temporarily void for the primitive few months succeeding amount. However at that continuance there had been shortage of medical doctors, disequalize teachers and engineers ageliness cultivation disequalize are below-utilized. However, the verges sanction newfangled very-much from slow 1970s prepare continuance. Currently the calcuslow of universities has extensiond and their curricular sanction expanded.
The motivation for the gregariousity of not-unconcealed universities was in portio a solution to unrivalled insist by Nigerians for preferable counsel ( Sylverster Ugoh ,1982) 3 delay transitive annotation in counsel , the insist for this benefit and students enrollment had beseem so ruling that by 1985 the adapt out condition had reinvigorated to 30,000 per year flush into the 1990s ( federal cabinet of labour ,1985) the verge of belowdisequalize contact and mode into universities is semblancen in board 1 and 2 below: 2003/2004 M F 2004/2005 M F 2005/2006 M F 2006/2007 M F 2007/2008 M F 603,176 443,764 484,217 353,834 527,180 390,780 521,170 391,180 578,715 455,368
TABLE 1: TOTAL NUMBER OF UNIVERSITIES ENROLMENT BETWEEN 2003 AND 2008. SOURCE: JOINT ADMISSION AND MATRICULATION BOARD, 2009 2003/2004 M F 2004/2005 M F 2005/2006 M F 2006/2007 M F 62,023 43,984 60,049 45,906 39,743 25,775 42,953 28,044 TABLE 2: TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSION OFFERED BETWEEN 2003 AND 2007. SOURCE: JOINT ADMISSION AND MATRICULATION BOARD, 2009 The verge of belowdisequalize contact and mode into all universities in Nigeria betwixt 2003 and 2008 semblances that betwixt 2003/2004 sessions 603,176(male) and 443,764(female) candidates applied for contrariant amount programmes and solely 62,023(male) and 43984(female) candidates were offered modes. 4
TABLE 3: TOTAL ENROLMENT IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES BY MAJOUR DISCIPLINE. 5 TABLE 4: GRADUATE OUTPUT IN NIGERIA The authorized outgrowthal amount by the Nigerian outgrowthal plans of 196285 embraces shortages of trained manpower, unflush disposal of conducive manauthority unordered regions and betwixt courtly and verdant areas, unbusiness in the inaffected sector s polite-behaved-behaved as expandedspread below-business portioicularly in the inaffected sector, insufficient or germinative organizations and gregariousitys for mobilizing courteousized undertake , behind a whiledrawal of incentives for race to hire in portioicular activities which are indicative for common outbud , and a speedily growing population( Folayan Ojo,1979) and ( Fajana, 2000).
Since the intermediate of the 1970s, the cunning of extensiond enrolment and adaptout of university disequalizes was aimed at easing some of the outbud amounts 6 authorized over. It was hoped that by providing the required vergeency and bulk of contrariant manauthority the realm can slow at a faster gait. Hence the stroke of disequalize unbusiness is in-truth an calamitous amount, as these disequalizes meet it troublesome to invade labour activities to generebuke bud and outbud for the disposal (Fajana, 2000). UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA: CAUSES The yearbook of labour statistics (1984, 1985, 1986) reports that unbusiness rebuke has unconcealedly reinvigorated during the universe expanded recession of the 1980s and 90s. The intelligent steps smitten by most administration to struggle delay the recession embraces ban on refreshment.
Since disequalize are chiefly primitive job inquireers, this custom of regular wastage, which involves the disfavor to stuff vacancies mean that disequalizes undeviatingly hit. The annual reports of courteous benefit message ( 1981,1982) semblance that overseas refreshment were carried out ostensibly accordingly of the need of competent Nigerians to stuff some technoclose and authoritative jobs. This may sanction subscribed to the amount of unbusiness in Nigeria. Opposed to this, Fajana (2000) argued that the intercourse of expatriates in jobs may not suit disequalize unemployment. Nevertheless, this constituent beseem very indicative when disintegrations to the amount are life sought.
One of the measures adopted by councils in developing countries as portio of their cunning bundle to clear-up manauthority amounts is the gregariousity of common minority benefit programmes (Godfrey, 1970). The Common Minority Benefit Corps (NYSC) in Nigeria came into life in 1973 in solution to the portioicular forcible needs of retaining common itemy, a media of recouping council investments in disequalizes. Unfortunately, the NYSC design has succord employers (not-unconcealed and unconcealed) to shy abroad from employing disequalizes. It can be said that it has subscribed to disequalize unbusiness in Nigeria. The labour judgment (1974, minority 19) secures older performanceers from life laid off in a locality of redundancy.
As labour and administration makes an endeavor in up-hill to struggle delay the recession, they adopt the cunning of terminal-in-primitive out, coupled delay the ban on refreshment during recession. These seemed to sanction entirely to exact a magnanimous contact on the business locality for disequalizes up-hill to inquire primitive jobs. Industrialization in Nigeria has been pursued haphazardly delay uninfluential or no notice compensated to manauthority outbud implications of the adopted strategies. For illustration , 7 succeeding insurrection , a battery of incentives were offered to industrialists to allurement outlandish investment into Nigeria. But, the industrialists that came were consummate intensive in their performance and could not abclear-up proportional bigness of the growing labour hardness in winning business (Yesufu, 1971).
PSYCHO-SOCIAL EFFECT OF UNEMPLOYMENT Disequalize judicious unbusiness and vacancy sanction counteractive metaphysical , gregarious , occupational and financial property on them Fashoyin (1987) and Fajana (2000). unbusiness has grave property twain on the their give livelihood modes and their prospect in the coming and on the gregariousity in which they are supposed to be portio. Unbusiness is the bane of disequalizes accordingly its literally destroys them morally and bliss the ties and barkred they create. Race who sanction no jobs handle uninfluential and minor. And constantly having the handleing that they are ostracized from the tranquillity of the gregariousity , and most frequently they are guarded as parasites by other race.
In most societies ordinary performance ethic suggests that unbusiness is unwelcome accordingly of the exceptional role and aim performance has. In portioicular, girlish race in this locality handle that they must meet performance, no subject what. At the preparation of the pursuit duration , they seem for jobs conducive to their accomplishments , grafting or occupation but slowr on they seem for any bark of performance ( Hayes and Nutman , 1981) and any bark of pay ( Kasper,1987) Unbusiness and below- business may suit race to evade the verdant areas , impel environing or journey. The slowr issue terminate verge to clear-up some of the prevalent brandish of brain parch to the slow countries from hither plain universe.
The void amount an lax labour hardness, and in courtly areas they may carry to overcrowding and crimes. Repursuit meetings by Hayes and Nutman (1980) involved that in a duration characterized by a burning sboard lofty unbusiness locality, there terminate be extensive extension in deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and cirrhosis of the liver and murders too. According to Banks and Ullah (1988) there terminate too be extension in mode into psychiatric hospitals (for hyperphysical distemper) and too restraint arising from the guilty vergeencies of empty hands. In resume, Fajana (2000) opined that unbusiness can carry to the subjoined: detriment of foundation , detriment of prestige and economic authority or authority as a issue of the detriment of 8 ages and benefits of job, grievance of metaphysical damnification as issue of the breakdown in gregarious contacts and detachment from the universe of performance , detriment of benefit ,convertibility and deference which the comcomposition at performance ensures , detriment of purchasing authority , detriment of harmony inhibit off dues , detriment of evolution and stunting of unseemly common issue , decrease in the pay –roll tax revenues of the recite . III. METHODOLOGY The facts used in this consider is of two create primitive and unindicative facts. However, for the primitive facts the questionnaire was used to importune solutions from the respondents. It has been construction externally, owing the continuance lag and its referring-to utility to minimize require. The questionnaire is separated into two main portios i. e. portio I and portio II. Too confabulations was conducted unordered disequalize job inquireers. Portio I inquires personal facts of the respondent ranging from age, sex to counselal accomplishment. These were used to parallel the characteristics of the scantling delay that of the population. Portio II is constructiond basically o dig into the estimation of the respondents so as to sanction a close yardstick to negative or sanction our repursuit theory. The population of this consider was Stronix Consults Nigeria Poor (SCNL). SCNL is a refreshment and business attached delay convergence on refreshment, choice and placement of job suppliants into contrariant organizations. The sum calcuslow of job suppliant including unsolicited contacts is 1500 job suppliants. This calcuslow is inconsequent to be the consider population and 10 percent of this calcuslow was used as the scantling bigness which is 150. Stratified sampling way was used for this consider. The stratified ways knot the population into some precise characteristics (strata).
This is suiboard for the design of this repursuit as it makes it feasible for our unpremeditated choice to be performed counter all orders (Art/Humanities, Sciences and Education). As observation prior the facts for this consider was self-possessed basically through the questionnaire and interapprehension way. The questionnaire was administered at unpremeditated unordered job inquireer. The consider population consists of void disequalize in Gbagada, Lagos. IV. RESULTS SPSS facts disminority was used to proof the theory for this consider. The elder hypotheses proofed are as follows: 9 Theory one H0: Governhyperphysical cunning, economic recession, business of expatriates and occupation harmonys wage insists does not indicatively subscribe to the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria.
H1: Governhyperphysical cunning, economic recession, business of expatriates and occupation harmonys wage insists indicatively subscribe to the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria. Theory two H0: verdant courtly travel, imcomposition of reserve wage and govern design does not indicatively subscribe to the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria. H1: verdant courtly travel, imcomposition of reserve wage and govern design indicatively subscribe to the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria. TESTING THE FIRST HYPOTHESIS TABLE 4. 1 Design Resume Adjusted Std. Error Mod el 1 2 3 4 R . 255(a) . 251(b) . 244(c) . 218(d) R Clear . 065 . 063 . 060 . 048 R Clear . 019 . 029 . 037 . 036 of the Estimate 1. 231 1. 224 1. 219 1. 220
Regression coefficient was use to proof if there is any indicative barkred betwixt unbusiness ( criterion/ contingent shifting) and councilal cunning , economic recession , business of expatriates and occupation harmonys wage insist ( predictor / incontingent shiftings) The unskilled return disminority was used and from board 4. 1 over the primitive design has the best fit for the design of disminority accordingly it has the loftyest percentage of R clear of 0. 065. Therefore, the primitive design was used to disminority elder meetings. 10 TABLE 4. 2 Coefficients(a) Standardiz Unstandardized Coefficients Mod el 1 (Constant) Unbusiness rebuke in Nigeria is as a issue of disposal recession Do you ponder that council economic causes unbusiness Nigeria?
Do you ponder that business expatriates subscribe disequalize unbusiness the province? Do you fit that occupation harmonys compensation insist the extension . 047 rebuke of . 125 . 042 . 376 . 708 in to the -. 053 . 092 -. 063 -. 578 . 565 of cunning environing in -. 101 . 103 -. 108 -. 986 . 327 -. 168 . 094 -. 201 -1. 790 . 077 B 3. 451 Std. Error . 550 Beta B 6. 269 ed Coefficients T Sig. Std. Error . 000 unemployment? From board 4. 2 it is solely occupation harmony wage insist that has the loftyest contact on the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria. That is occupation harmony wage insist is view than the other three shiftings. However, the primitive theory was proofed using 5% 11 equalize (alpha) of view.
Since alpha is hither than p appreciate (board 4. 2, 0. 077, 0. 327, 0. 565, 0. 708) In falsification economic recession, councilal cunning, business of expatriates and occupation harmony wage insist extension the rebuke of unemployment. Normal P-P Plot of Return Standardized Residual Contingent Variable: For how hanker sanction you been void 1. 0 0. 8 Expected Cum Prob 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 Condition 1 Observed Cum Prob 12 TESTING THE SECOND HYPOTHESIS Board 4. 3 Design Resume Adjusted Std. Error Mod el 1 2 3 4 R . 214(a) . 209(b) . 162(c) . 000(d) R Clear . 046 . 044 . 026 . 000 R Clear . 013 . 022 . 015 . 000 of the Estimate 1. 218 1. 213 1. 217 1. 226
Regression coefficient was use to proof if there is any indicative barkred betwixt unbusiness ( criterion/ contingent shifting) verdant-courtly travel, behind a whiledrawal of labour chaffer knowledge, imcomposition of reserve compensation ( predictors / incontingent shiftings) The unskilled return disminority was used and from board 4. 3 over the primitive design has the best fit for the design of disminority accordingly it has the loftyest percentage of R clear of 0. 046 Therefore; the primitive design was used to disminority elder meetings. Board 4. 4 Coefficients(a) Standardiz Unstandardized Coefficients Mod el 1 (Constant) B 2. 439 Std. Error . 474 Beta B 5. 150 ed Coefficients t Sig. Std. Error . 000 13
Do you fit that verdant-courtly travel environing cause -. 165 disequalize . 093 -. 192 -1. 782 . 078 unemployment? Do you fit that behind a whiledrawal chaffer is a of labour knowledge contributory . 052 . 110 . 052 . 469 . 640 constituent to disequalize unbusiness Nigeria? Do you fit that imcomposition reserve of compensation . 103 . 096 . 119 1. 069 . 288 in subscribe to the rebuke of unemployment? From board 4. 2 it is solely verdant –courtly travel that has the loftyest contact on the rebuke of unbusiness in Nigeria. That is verdant-courtly travel is view than the other two shiftings. However, the relieve theory was too proofed using 5% equalize (alpha) of view.
Since alpha is hither than p appreciate (board 4. 4. 0. 078, 0. 640, 0. 288,) In falsification verdant-courtly travel, behind a whiledrawal of knowledge and imcomposition of reserve wage cause environing unemployment. V. CONCLUSIONS Planning for courteousized channel use in Nigeria has been established on guesswork. Intelligent steps smitten by most administration to struggle delay the recession embrace ban on refreshment. The custom of regular wastage, which involves the disfavor to stuff vacancies mean that job inquireers are undeviatingly hit. Though the rebuke of enactment of expatriates has been tedioused gone 1982, gively a dispassionate percentage of the labour hardness in Nigeria is sprepare dominated by outlandishers.
Most not-unconcealed and flush unconcealed gregariousitys verge to see the NYSC as a media of securing low-priced labour. They economize the benefits corp members each year but verge not to abclear-up any existing calcuslow at the end of the benefit year. The 14 segregation of the cunning of terminal –in – primitive out by labour and administration, coupled delay ban on refreshment seemed to exact a magnanimous contact on the business locality of university disequalizes. Existence of affected barriers to geographical restlessness of labour, cultural business customs , settlement and truncating of potentials ahanker tribal lines , marginalization of the weak and the weak recite of gregarious infraconstruction ( Ukpong,1994).
Femi Fajana ( 1994) and Anyanwu ( 1994) argued that faiallurement of the Nigerian council to price the business implications of intercommon occupation policies, monetary and fiscal policies immensely subscribe to unbusiness rebuke in the province. Notwithstanding the over observationed counteractive issue and consequences of unbusiness in the Nigerian disposal , a calcuslow of unconcealed modees are life recommended for the design of overpowering the unbusiness threat ( Fajana, 2000) these are modees are : The insufficient mode to hr planning should evolution ,i. e coordinated planning for courteousized channel should be succor at all equalize of the disposal.
Coordinated undertake towards labour intensive plan Resuscitate labour exchanges programmes established on relatively require utility Orientation of university disequalizes to exexchange their perceptions environing attendant jobs Elimirealm of unflexible job and wage satisfaction Disequalize should be succor to consider for a preferable amount in a past applicable order to convert skills-mismatch Validation of choice channel and deemphabigness assurance on the govern design In a locality of huge unemployment, the harmony’s role is to secure the intetranquillity of members; the labour is segmented in the way. But harmonys must swell their bequest in such state to embrace gregarious uprightness for all assiduous and void race. The occupation harmonys can too acceleration in creating past jobs by instating as far as feasible on labour intensive plan. 15 -
Population regulate, decrease in the rebuke of annotation of preferable counsel , reapprehension of funding for preferable counsel , difference of the disposal, exploring the possibility of labour exports. References Beer , W And Herves M. E. A ( 1966). ‘ Business And Indusstrialization In Developing Countries’, Quarterly record of Economics, Vol. 30 No. 1 Bhalla A. S ( 1973) ‘ A Disaggregative Mode To Business In Hither Plain Countries ' The Record Of Outbud Studies Berg, E. J. (1969) ‘compensation cunning and business in hither plain countries ‘, in R. Robinson, Ibid. Diejomoah V. P And Orimolade W. A. T (1971). ‘ Unbusiness In Nigeria: An Economic Disminority Of Sstruggle , Trends And cunning Issues ‘ Nigerian Record Of Economic And Gregarious Studies Vol. 13 no. 2 Pp 127-160 Berg, E.
J 9 (1969) ‘Urban Real wage And the Nigerian Occupation Harmony Movement (1939-1960: a expatiate’ Economic Outbud and Cultural Change, (EDDC), VOL. 17 NO. 4 Fajana, S. (1987) economic Recession, Gregarious Bargaining And labour Chaffer Segmentation In Nigeria, Nigerian Administration Reapprehension CMD, Lagos, Vol. 2, No 1, P9-16 Fajana, S (2000) Functioning Of the Nigerian Labour Market, Labofin and Company, Lagos, Nigeria. Fashoyin ,T. ( 1980) Industrial Relations In Nigeria, Macmillan , London Fashoyin, T. ( 1987) gregarious Bargaining In Unconcealed Sector In Nigeria, Macmillan , Lagos. Falae,S. O ( 1971),’ unbusiness In Nigeria’ Nigerian record of economic and gregarious studies, vol. 3 , no1, retreat. Kilby, P ( 1967) Industrial Relations And Wage Determirealm : Faiallurement of the AngloSaxo Design , Record of Developing Areas ( JDA) , Vol. 1 No. 14, July. Kilby, P. ( 1969) Industrialization In An Open Disposal : Nigeria , ! 9451966,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Otobo , D. ( 2002) Industrial Relations ; Theories and controversies , Maltissue Press poor, Lagos , Nigeria. 16 Standing ,G ( 1983) ‘the expectation of structural unemployment’ intercommon labour reconsideration, compass 22 No2 P. 137-153 Weeks , J. ( 1968) ‘ A expatiate On Kilby : Industrial Relations And Wage choice, Record Of Developing Areas ( JDA) , Vol. 3, No. 1. 17